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Screening A Combination of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Yeast and Application in Traditional Pickle
CHEN Cai, ZHANG Ming, FU Zhuxian, WANG Shumin, LUO Fan
 doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022100116
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In order to explore the fermentation performance of lactic acid bacteria and yeast with different species relationships in the process of pickle fermentation, a pair of lactic acid bacteria and yeast with mutual promoting relationship from 8 strains of lactic acid bacteria and 5 strains of yeast from different food sources, were screened through the cross-culture of metabolites and co-culture methods, namely Lactobacillus plantarum J05 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y21. The co-culture relationship of this group of bacteria was analyzed by culture mode, inoculation sequence and inoculation ratio, then the pH, total acid, reducing sugar content and nitrite content were measured during the fermentation process. The results showed that the addition of the sterile metabolites of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y21 in standing culture significantly promoted the growth of Lactobacillus plantarum J05 in the growing stage; the growth of both strains was promoted by inoculation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y21 followed by Lactobacillus plantarum J05 and the optimal inoculation ratio of two strains was 30:1 and 40:1. When the inoculation ratio of bacteria group was 30:1, at the stable stag of pickle fermentation, compared with natural fermentation group, single bacteria group and mutual inhibition group, the pH of mutual promotion group was 3.4~3.5, which was significantly lower than that of other groups (P<0.05). The highest total acid content was 1.25 mg/kg, which was significantly higher than that of other groups (P<0.01). The reducing sugar content was lower, maintaining about 0.10 g/100 g, and the peak nitrite content was 5.38 mg/kg, which was significantly lower than that in the other three groups except Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y21 group (P<0.01). In summary, this group of bacteria selected in this experiment would have strong fermentation ability, could shorten the fermentation period and reduce the nitrite content in pickles.
Study on the Bacteriostatic Activity and Stability of Ethanolic Extract from Yunnan Litsea Cubeba
CHEN Cong, XUE Qiaoli, HU Yong jin, WEI Meijuan, CHEN Zhongai
 doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022100111
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In this study, the antibacterial effects of five different ethanolic concentrations (0%, 55%, 75%, 95%, 100%) EELC (Ethanol Extract of Yunnan Litsea Cubeba) on two kinds of pathogenic bacteria were determined. Ethanol extracts which had the strongest antibacterial activity and their stability were analyzed. The inhibition zone diameter of different concentrations in ethanolic EELC against E.coil and S.aureus were determined by KB paper method. At the same time, using TTC (2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride) method detected the MIC of EELC to screen out the best antibacterial activity of EELC. At the end, the temperature, heat treatment time, pH and UV light stability of EELC were further studied. The results showed that 55% and 75% EELC had the best inhibitory effect on S.aureus and E.coli, with MIC of 19 and 819 μg/mL, respectively. 55% EELC treated at 40 ℃, the OD600 was 0.118, which had the optimal antibacterial activity. Furthermore, the antibacterial activity remained stable after treatment for 1~5 hours at this condition. There was no significant difference in antibacterial activity between the two groups after irradiation with 30W UV light for 10~60 min (P>0.05). The bacteriostatic activity decreased at pH4, while it remained at a stable level at pH 6~10. 75% EELC was treated at 100 ℃, the retention rate of antibacterial activity reaching 92.88%, and no significant difference was found in antibacterial activity after heating at this temperature for 1~5 h (P>0.05). The antibacterial activity was significantly decreased at pH 4~8 (P<0.05), but it showed increasing trend at pH10. Uv light irradiation for 10~60 min had no significant effect on the inhibitory activity (P>0.05). Conclusions: 55% EELC had a high stability and low action concentration against S.aureus, while 75% EELC had a stable inhibition effect against E.coil. Our results provided a theoretical basis for the comprehensive utilization and development of Yunnan Litsea Cubeba.
Effects of Yeast-lactic Acid Bacteria Co-fermentation on the Quality of Navel Orange Beverage
YE Hong, ZHOU Xuerui, WANG Su, ZHANG Yingyue, SUN Yue, ZENG Chaoyi, ZHANG Qing, TANG Jie
 doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022100060
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To study the fermentation characteristics of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC-125) and Lactobacillus plantarum (B-5) in mixed bacterial fermentation, fresh Jintang navel orange juice was used as raw material and inoculated with the two bacteria separately for co-fermentation, to investigate the changes in the number of viable bacteria, pH, reducing sugar, alcohol, and The changes of basic physicochemical indexes such as viable bacteria, pH, reducing sugar, alcoholic content and total phenols were investigated, and the scavenging ability of DPPH and hydroxyl radicals of navel orange drinks were examined. The results showed that the yeast in the co-fermented navel orange beverage increased rapidly to 8.0 CFU·mL−1 and the reduced sugar content decreased rapidly during 0~36 h of fermentation compared with the navel orange drink prepared by single-strain fermentation. The final alcohol content of co-fermentation was 5.33%, which was lower than that of brewer's yeast SC-125 alone. The total phenolic content, DPPH radicals and hydroxyl The total phenolic content, DPPH free radical and hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity of co-fermentation increased, reaching 355.5 mg·L−1, 78.82%, and 77.08%, respectively. Co-fermentation volatile components were more abundant, with 51 aroma substances detected, including 9 unique aroma substances, namely: isopropyl format, ethyl undecanoate, isobutyl acetate, methyl butyrate, tetrahydro linalool, 1-tetradecanol, 2-pentanol, undecylenic aldehyde, 2-nitropropane, giving navel orange drinks nutty, coconut and rose aromas. aroma, coconut aroma, and rose aroma. The principal component analysis of the electronic nose showed that the co-fermentation was more sensitive to three sensors, W5S, W1S and W2S, mainly nitrogen oxides, short chain alkanes and ethanol. This study would provide a theoretical basis for the development of navel orange beverages.
Effects of Ultrasound/Vacuum-assisted Osmotic on the Kinetics and Physicochemical Properties of Sweet Potatoes Dried by Microwave Vacuum
CHENG Xinfeng, WANG Shihao, LU Yaozhong, DING Jianing, HONG Lijie
 doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022090225
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The effects of ultrasonic treatment (US), osmotic dehydration (OD), ultrasonic-assisted osmosis (USOD), vacuum-assisted osmosis (VAOD), and ultrasonic/vacuum-assisted osmosis (VUOD) on the drying kinetics, microstructure, pore characteristics, and physicochemical properties of sweet potatoes were studied using microwave vacuum drying technology to improve drying efficiency and product quality. Weibull distribution function and Dincer model were used to fit the drying curves, and the heat and mass transfer mechanisms of the drying process of MVD sweet potato slices were investigated by combining the scale parameter (α), shape parameter (β), hysteresis factor (G), drying coefficient (S) and Biovor number (Bi). The findings demonstrated that when compared to other pre-treatments, USOD and VUOD significantly enhanced the water loss (WL) and solids gain (SG) of sweet potato slices (P<0.05). The drying curves of the MVD sweet potato slices were perfectly fitted by the Dincer model and Weibull distribution function. The MVD sweet potato slices pretreated by USOD had the maximum drying efficiency and the shortest acceleration phase, according to the findings of the model parameters (α, β, G, S). The Biovor number (Bi), which ranged from 0.243 to 3.617, indicated that internal conduction heat resistance and surface convection heat resistance jointly regulated the temperature changes of sweet potato slices during MVD drying. According to the Weibull and Dincer model, the moisture diffusion coefficients Dcal and Deff were maximal for USOD samples and minimum for OD samples, ranging from 7.986×10−8 to 1.249×10−7 m2/s and 1.508×10−8 to 8.272×10−8 m2/s, respectively. The MVD sweet potato slices pretreated by USOD and VUOD showed regular cellular structure with a honeycomb porous structure. The VUOD sample had the maximum porosity (33.30%), whereas the USOD sample had the smallest average pore size (164.50 nm) and the largest tortuosity (41.97). In comparison to other pretreatments, USOD and VUOD treatments considerably enhanced the rehydration performance of MVD sweet potato slices (P<0.05), decreased bulk shrinkage, better preserved the original color, and lowered the color difference. The study's findings can serve as a guide for selecting and evaluating the microwave vacuum drying parameters for sweet potato slices.
Effect of Corn Ferulic Acid on Lipid Metabolism and Liver Injury in Hyperlipidemia Rats
ZHANG Naidan, ZUO Zhaohang, WANG Ying, SUN Wei, PANG Weiqiao
 doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2023020270
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Objective: To investigate the effects of corn ferulic acid on lipid metabolism and liver injury in hyperlipidemic rats. Significance: To improve the added value of corn husk and provide theoretical basis and data support for the health effect of corn ferulic acid. Methods: Eight rats were randomly selected as the normal group, and the rest rats were fed with high-fat diet to establish the hyperlipidemia rat model. The hyperlipidemia rats were randomly divided into positive control group, model group and corn ferulic acid high, medium and low dose groups. After 42 days of gavage, the liver index, blood lipid, antioxidant index and liver sections were measured. Results: Compared with the model group, corn ferulic acid reduced 0.23% of the body weight growth rate and 0.14% of the liver index of the hyperlipidemic rats. The levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and malondialdehyde (MDA) in hyperlipidemic rats were decreased by 25.45%, 52%, 48.28%, 29.81%, 16.63%, and 51.95%, respectively. The contents of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPH-Px), catalase (CAT) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were increased by 123.54%, 153.89%, 209.9% and 56.76%. Corn ferulic acid can improve the liver tissue structure of hyperlipidemia rats. Conclusion: Corn ferulic acid can reduce the body weight and liver index of hyperlipidemia rats, improve blood lipid metabolism, improve antioxidant ability, and alleviate liver damage caused by hyperlipidemia.
Optimization of Production of Ferulic Oligosaccharides by Solid State Fermentation of Neurospora sitophila
XIAO Kai, DENG Yongping, LIU Yuchi, LIU Xiaolan, WANG Yan, ZHAO Yu
 doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2023020090
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The solid-fermented process conditions of producing feruloylated oligosaccharides (FOs) from corn bran was optimized in this study. The fungus Neurospora sitophila (generally recognised as safe, GRAS) was used as fermenting species, and FOs content was considered as the indicator, the single-factor and response surface experiments were performed to optimize the culture medium and culture conditions, including inoculation amount, fermentation time, fermentation temperature, and added amount of water. An FOs yield of 1.52 μmol/g was achieved under the following conditions: 5 g of corn bran and 2% of corn bran weight (w/w) of soybean meal in a 250 mL conical flask, an inoculation size of 1.17×105 spores/flask, a fermentation time of 75 h, a fermentation temperature of 28 ℃, and added water mount of 15.2 mL. The observed yield value was close to the theoretical value predicted by the model (1.56 μmol/g), and was increased by 60.83% compared to that of the pre-optimized process. Therefore, the FOs content of the product was significantly increased by the optimization of the fermentation process, which offered a novel thought for enhancing the added value and expanding the routes for preparing maize bran-derived FOs.
Development of a Fluorescence Assay for Rapid Detection of Alkaline Phosphatase Activity in Fresh Milk Based on Inner Filter Effect of Carbon Dots
JIA Baozhu, HE Zhenxi, HUANG Xinru, QIU Zhijing, GUO Linyuan, YUAN Yupei, WANG Biman, LUO Lin
 doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022110075
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This work aimed at developing a fluorescence assay for rapid and sensitive determination of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in fresh milk using nitrogen doped carbon dots (N-CDs) as fluorescence probe. Green-emissive N-CDs were synthesized by using ethylenediamine as the nitrogen source and catechol as the carbon source through a hydrothermal method. The obtained N-CDs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra. Control experiments were used to verify the feasibility for constructing the fluorescent assay using the N-CDs. Single-factor experiments were conducted to optimize the pH of working buffer, the concentration of disodium p-nitrophenyl phosphate (PNPP) and enzymatic reaction time for ALP detection. The results indicated that the as-synthesized N-CDs were successfully prepared with all the characterization results being consistent with those in previous works. The optimal working conditions for this assay were as follows: Tris-HCl (20 mmol/L, pH=10) as working buffer, 1 mmol/L of PNPP as enzymatic substrate, incubation for 50 min. Under the optimal conditions, it was found that fluorescence intensity of N-CDs linearly corelated with ALP concentration from 0.01 to 25 U/L with correlation coefficients of 0.995. The linear regression equation was Y=15397.05X+70344.46 with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.001 U/L (S/N=3). Recoveries for two kinds of fresh milk were in the range from 100.1% to 107.2%, and the coefficients of variations were less than 14.3%, which indicated that the proposed method had good accuracy and reliability. This study provides an accurate and efficient method for the detection of ALP in fresh milk.
Optimization of Subcritical Water Extraction of Rosmarinic Acid from Perilla (Perilla frutescens L.) Seed Meal and Its Antioxidant Activity
YAN Linlin, WANG Yanhui, ZHANG Jiachan, ZHENG Guangyao
 doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022080130
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Subcritical water extraction (SWE), a green and environmentally friendly extraction technology, was successfully used to extract rosmarinic acid from perilla seed meal (PSM). Based on the results of single-factor experiments, three-factor and three-level of response surface methodology was used to optimize the extraction parameters of rosmarinic acid in PSM, including extraction temperature (140~180 °C), extraction time (20~40 min) and solid-liquid ratio (1:30~1:50 g/mL). Meanwhile, the effects of SWE and several conventional extraction methods on the extraction yields of rosmarinic acid and their antioxidant activities (DPPH and ABTS free radical scavenging capacity) of PSM extracts were compared. The results showed that the optimized parameters were as follows: extraction temperature 163 ℃, extraction time 30 min, and the ratio of solid to liquid 1:41 g/mL. Under these conditions, the extraction yield of rosmarinic acid was 4.91±0.16 mg/g dw, and the free radicals scavenging capacities of DPPH and ABTS were 10.62 and 13.46 mgVC/g dw, respectively, which were significantly higher than those of several conventional extraction methods. In addition, scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed that the structure of the PSM residues became looser after SWE, which could benefit the extraction of rosmarinic acid.
Antioxidant Components and Antioxidant Activity of Tibetan Propolis and Its Simulated Digestive Juices
ZHANG Shuo, WANG Fang, DU Lin, PAN Wushuang
 doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022100181
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To evaluate the antioxidant activity and potential of propolis, Tibetan propolis and its simulated digestive juice were analyzed for its chemical composition (contents of total phenolics (TPC) and total flavonoids (TFC)), reducing power and antioxidant activity (hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays, metal iron chelating activity and lipid peroxidation inhibition ability). The results showed that the contents of TPC and TFC in Tibetan propolis were 7.02% and 10.05%, respectively. The highest values of antioxidant activity was achieved at a concentration of 1 mg/mL. The contents of TPC and TFC in simulated digestive juices were diminished. The contents of TPC and TFC in simulated gastric digestive juices (2 h), were 0.43% and 6.43%, respectively. The contents of TPC and TFC in simulated intestinal digestive juices (2 h) were 0.32% and 5.11%, respectively. The values of reducing power, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, DPPH radical scavenging activity, and lipid peroxidation inhibition ability in Tibetan propolis were 0.35%, 96.60%, 92.53%, 19.96% and 97.01%, respectively. Reducing power and DPPH radical scavenging activity of simulated gastric digestive juices exhibited an increasing trend, with respect to the undigested sample. The highest values of reducing power and DPPH radical scavenging activity were 0.39% and 95.69%, respectively. Hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, metal iron chelating activity and lipid peroxidation inhibition ability of simulated gastric digestive juices exhibited a decreasing trend, with respect to the undigested sample. Simulated intestinal digestive had higher -OH scavenging rates, metal ion chelation rates, and lipid peroxidation inhibition rates than simulated gastric digestive, with highest values of 99.72%, 69.26%, and 80.69%, respectively; the reducing power and DPPH radical scavenging rate experienced a decreasing tendency, but the highest DPPH radical scavenging rate remained at 74.73%. All of these suggest that Tibetan propolis has high antioxidant activity. During in vitro digestion, antioxidant indicators significantly changed, but the changing trend of each indicator was inconsistent. Several indicators still performed well. Tibetan propolis can be used as a premium natural antioxidant.
Optimization of Rice Bran Protein Extraction Processing by Response Surface Methodology with Natural Deep Eutectic Solvents
LIU Weiqi, DENG Yuanyuan, WEI Zhencheng, ZHANG Yan, TANG Xiaojun, LIU Guang, ZHOU Pengfei, ZHANG Mingwei
 doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022100049
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In this text, rice bran protein (RBP) was extracted from rice bran using natural deep eutectic solvents (NADES), as well as the extraction processing of parameters were systemically optimized. RBP was characterized by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The optimization extraction of RBP parameters were carried out as follows: proline-glycerol (molar ratio 2:5), 4.7% of water in system, solid-liquid ratio of 9:30 for rice bran to NADES, reaction temperature at 65 ℃ for 3.0 h. The maximum extraction efficiency of RBP was 82.69% under the aforementioned conditions. The new chemical compound in the extraction processing of RBP were not able to be observed in terms of FTIR. The micrograph structure of rice bran was effectively damaged as shown in SEM, which might be a reasonable answer for the better extraction efficiency of RBP in NADES. The results in the present work guided for extraction of plant-based proteins with a designed NADES.
Effect of Extrusion Treatment on Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Foxtai Millet Flour Protein
QI Wan, QIAO Jiawei, LI Yongquan, CHEN Shujun, YANG Pu, ZHANG Lizhen
 doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022100212
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In this study, foxtail millet was used as raw material. The purpose of research was to investigate the changes of the properties and structures of four foxtail millet proteins, including albumin, glutelin, gliadin and globulin, after treatment by extrudating with α-amylase. The results demonstrated the increased water holding capacities, decreased foaming abilities, as well as the loss of the contents of several amino acids of these foxtail millet proteins under all extrusion conditions. Additionally, after extruding with enzyme, the contents of these proteins decreased, whereas the emulsification abilities increased. Among these proteins, the emulsification ability of gliadin was increased, while the foam stabilities of gliadin and glutelin were enhanced. Additionally, extruding with amylase resulted in less protein bands of albumin and globulin on gel. Furthermore, the secondary and tertiary structures of these foxtail millet proteins were comparable along extruding with enzyme, with minor blue shift. In conclusion, extruding with enzyme could improve the properties of foxtail millet proteins, with little influence on the secondary and tertiary structures. These findings indicate that the pregelatinization foxtail millet flour obtained with enzymatic extrusion processing technology could be used for an ideal functional food resource.
Comparison of Volatile Oil Composition and Antioxidant Activity in Different Parts of Cinnamomum migao
GUO Jiangtao, ZHANG Yongping, LIU Jie, XU Jian, CHENG Chun, LIU Yao
 doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.202211005
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Objective: To compare the chemical composition of mature fruit, immature fruit, stalk and leaf of Cinnamomum migao (C. migao), and also to investigate the antioxidant capacity. Methods: The volatile oils of mature fruit, immature fruit, stalk and leaf of C. migao were extracted by hydrodistillation, and their respective components were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), the analytical results were searched and matched with Nist 17 and Wiley 275 standard mass spectra, and their relative contents were determined by peak area normalization method, the DPPH· and ABTS+· and total reducing capacity antioxidant system was also used to investigate their antioxidant effects. Results: 66 components were detected from the immature fruit volatile oil of C. migao, with a relative content of 89.365%, and the main components were n-decanoic acid (28.563%), 1,8-cineole (13.461%) and dodecanoic acid(13.279%), etc. 60 components were detected from the immature fruit volatile oil of C. migao, with a relative content of 86.2%, and the main components were 1,8-cineole(11.845%), β-phellandrene (10.831%) and α-phellandrene(9.178%), etc. 67 components were detected from the stalk volatile oil with a relative content of 55.047%, the main components were β-eudesmol (13.683%), 1-((1R,2R,3R)-2-(3- Isopropylfuran-2-yl)-3-methylcyclopentyl)ethanone (3.426%) and δ-cadinene (3.188%), etc. 50 components were detected from the leaf volatile oil with a relative content of 64.389%, the main components were 1-((1R,2R,3R)-2-(3-Isopropylfuran-2-yl)-3-methylcyclopentyl)ethanone (11.259%), spathulenol(8.473%) and 3,5-Bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-2-hydroxy-benzaldehyde(7.79%), etc. The antioxidant results indicating that the mature fruit volatile oil had the best antioxidant effect and the stalk volatile oil had the worst antioxidant effect. Correlation analysis showed that hydrocarbon and acid components were positively correlated with antioxidant capacity. Cluster analysis classified the mature and immature fruit into one category, and the stalk and leaf into one category. Conclusion: The components and contents of the volatile oil from different sources of C. migao varied greatly, but all of them had good antioxidant ability, which could lay the foundation for the subsequent study.
2023, 44(13).  
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2023, 44(13).  
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Papers Invited by Youth Editorial Committee
In Vitro Digestive Properties of Zein Nanoparticles
Zihao ZHANG, Shuo XU, Geyu PANG, Yuqing ZHANG, Shaoxuan YU, Yuanda SONG
2023, 44(13): 1-8.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022110187
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To investigate changes in the physicochemical properties of nano delivery systems that were fabricated by native biomacromolecules during digestion, curcumin and zein were separately used as the core and shell materials in this study, and curcumin-loaded zein nanoparticles (CZNPs) were prepared by the way of inverse solvent precipitation. Firstly, the physicochemical properties of CZNPs were characterized by various spectroscopy and electron microscopy methods. Then, the digestive properties of CZNPs in an in vitro simulated digestion model were investigated. Results showed that the encapsulation efficiency of Cur (99%±1%) was the largest when the mass ratio of Cur and zein was 1:40. Moreover, the obtained CZNPs were spherical nanoparticles with an average particle size of 118.6±0.7 nm and zeta potential of 19.9±3.79 mV. Slight adhesion between CZNPs was also noticed. During in vitro simulated gastric digestion, with the increase of digestive time, significant aggregation occurred and the average particle size of CZNPs increased to 8000 nm. Meanwhile, part of zein degraded into amino acids and Cur was released slightly. During the subsequent simulated intestinal digestion, the aggregation of CZNPs reduced with time. However, zein kept stable without continue degradation and the release of Cur didn’t change significantly. Therefore, zein nanoparticles may be an effective oral delivery system with possible applications in the development of functional foods and orally administered drugs.
Study on Ultrasound-assisted Optimization of Chitooligosaccharide-Pectin Stabilized Pickering Emulsion and Its Stability
Jingru LIAO, Bing DU, Zhiwei LIU, Pan LI, Liping FAN
2023, 44(13): 9-20.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022110331
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To investigate the optimal process of ultrasound-assisted preparation of chitooligosaccharide-stabilized Pickering emulsion and its stability performance, chitooligosaccharide and pectin were used as Pickering particle raw materials and sunflower oil as the oil phase, and emulsification activity index (EAI) and emulsion stability index (ESI) were selected as the indexes, the process conditions of ultrasound-assisted preparation of chitooligosaccharide-pectin stabilized Pickering emulsions were optimized by single factor experiment and response surfaces methodology, and the stability of the emulsions prepared under optimization was investigated. The results showed that the optimum conditions for chitooligosaccharide-pectin stabilized Pickering emulsion were as follow: Mass ratio of chitosan and pectin was 0.05, solution pH was 5.22, oil phase volume fraction was 32%, and ultrasonic power was 350 W. The EAI and ESI of emulsions reached (5.129±0.003) m2/g and (796.68±4.43) min respectively at the optimal condition. The stability experiments and the observation of the internal microstructure of the emulsions showed that the emulsions had excellent emulsification stability at 25~50 ℃ and 0~100 mmol/L salt ion (NaCl). Therefore, the novel Pickering emulsion optimized by ultrasound tech-nology improved the emulsification characteristics of the emulsion, which provided a reference for the preparation of chitooligosaccharide Pickering particles and their applications.
Effect of Polysaccharide Addition on the Stability and Gel Properties of Rabbit Myofibrillar Pickering Emulsion
Shan XUE, Juan LUO
2023, 44(13): 21-29.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022110340
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In this study, rabbit myofibrillar protein (RMP) was extracted, and Pickering emulsion and the emulsion gel were prepared with soybean oil as the oil phase. The effects of different pH environment (3~10), carrageenan (0.25%~0.50%) and sodium alginate (0.25%~0.50%) on the stability and gel properties of Pickering emulsion were investigated, in order to prepare Pickering emulsion gel with high stability by using RMP. The results showed that when pH value was 9, the absolute value of ζ-potential of RMP emulsion was the largest (33.60 mV). The absolute value of ζ-potential (72.97±0.60), emulsifying activity index (EAI) (5.09±0.09 m2·g−1) and emulsifying stability index (ESI) (46.07%±3.74%) of RMP-Pickering emulsion all reached the maximum value when the oil phase volume was 50% and the concentration of carrageenan and sodium alginate polysaccharide were both 0.35% at pH9. In the range of polysaccharide concentration from 0.25% to 0.35%, the water holding capacity, hardness and elasticity of RMP-Pickering emulsion gel with carrageenan and sodium alginate added all increased gradually, and these indicators reached the maximum value at the polysaccharide concentration of 0.35%. Besides, the sodium alginate-RMP Pickering emulsion gel had lower hardness and higher water holding capacity and elasticity than carrageenan-RMP gel, in the range of polysaccharide concentration from 0.35% to 0.50%. Infrared spectrum analysis showed that, with the increase of polysaccharide concentration, the content of β-folded of the RMP Pickering emulsion gel stabilized by the two polysaccharides increased first and then decreased, and the secondary structure of proteins changed from disordered to ordered. When both concentration of polysaccharides were 0.35%, the β-folded content reached the maximum (carrageenan group: 30.34%±0.04%, sodium alginate group: 29.70%±0.12%). According to analysis of macro and micro structures and gel force, hydrophobic interaction and disulfide bond both played a role in maintaining gel structure of carrageenan- and sodium alginate-RMP Pickering emulsion gel. In conclusion, when the final concentrations of carrageenan and sodium alginate were both 0.35%, the polysaccharides-RMP-Pickering emulsion system could be distributed more evenly, and aggregation was not easy to occur, and the emulsion gel with good texture characteristics could be further formed.
Research and Investigation
Physicochemical Characteristic and Antioxidant Activity in Vitro of Seabuckthorn Fruit Polysaccharide
Zhiqiang ZHAO, Xucheng ZHU, Zhenying FENG, Haiting CHEN, Jiale YU, Di YAN, Songquan SONG, Yingbin SHEN, Cuifang TANG
2023, 44(13): 30-38.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022070288
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In this study, a polysaccharide was extracted and separated from seabuckthorn fruits by water extraction. The physicochemical characteristics were characterized, including monosaccharide composition, molecular weight, microscopic characterization, thermal stability, and rheological properties. Four models were used to evaluate its antioxidant activity in vitro. The results showed that the main component of the polysaccharide was an acidic pectin polysaccharide with a molecular weight of 37.82×104 Da. It was mainly composed of fucose, rhamnose, arabinose, galactose, glucose, xylose, and glucuronic acid with a molar ratio of 0.244: 0.098: 0.265: 0.075: 0.091: 0.081: 0.103. It also contained α- and β-glycoside bonds and carbonyl, carboxyl, aldehyde and hydroxyl groups, with three spiral and lamellar structures. The polysaccharide had strong thermal stability whose solution exhibited pseudoplastic properties. Seabuckthorn berry polysaccharide had a strong antioxidant capacity in vitro and showed significant scavenging ability on DPPH free radicals. In addition, it presented chelating ability on Fe2+. In conclusion, seabuckthorn fruit polysaccharide has the potential to serve as functional food additives.
Effects of Cryo-grinding on the Extraction and Physicochemical Properties of Silk Fibroin
Jialin LIU, Yong YING, Lei GUO, Yuling XU, Haibo WANG, Chengzhi XU, Benmei WEI
2023, 44(13): 39-44.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022070350
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Herein, cryo-grinding technique was introduced into the extraction process of silk fibroin, aiming to achieve efficient preparation and controllable performance of silk fibroin. More specifically, the cocoon was pre-frozen in liquid nitrogen for 12 h before being ground, and the physical and chemical properties of the obtained sample (GSF322) were compared with the control one (SF). Results revealed that, compared with SF, the degumming duration for GSF322 dwindled from 90 min to 40 min with a close yield. Circular dichroism analysis demonstrated that the pretreatment process would not destroy the steric structure of the macromolecule. Turbidity assay implied that the assembly activity of the polymer in vitro could also be manipulated via assorted grinding periods, among which the sample ground for 3 min had the best assembly capacity. Dissection of the Zeta potential displayed that, after grinding, the positively-charged groups on the molecular chain of GSF322 might multiply, resulting in the exposure of more -NH2 groups in the surroundings and enhanced hydrophilicity of the material, which was in accordance with the trend from the water solubility experiment. Moreover, in the thermostability test, the dehydration peak for GSF322 was higher than that of SF, showing better thermal stability. To conclude, concerning the extraction process for silk fibroin, the cryogrinding approach sheds light on both the strengthening of the extraction efficiency as well as the tuning of the physiochemical aptitudes of the polymer.
Construction and Properties of Alginate-based Trilayer Composite Film Loaded with β-Lactoglobulin Nanoparticles
Wenting FAN, Kangjing LI, Jie SONG, Zihan JIANG, Haotian XU, Junxiang ZHU, Hao WU
2023, 44(13): 45-52.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022070353
Abstract(20) HTML(10) PDF(2)
In this work, a trilayer composite film of alginate-polyvinylpyrrolidone-alginate loaded with β-lactoglobulin nanoparticles was prepared based on the layer-by-layer assembly. The formation of β-lactoglobulin nanoparticles was induced by adjusting the ambient pH and temperature in combination with binding apigenin. The formation pattern and storage stability of β-lactoglobulin nanoparticles were investigated by particle size, polydispersity and Zeta potential. Then, the β-lactoglobulin nanoparticles were loaded into sodium alginate-polyvinylpyrrolidone-sodium alginate trilayer composite film to investigate the effects of nano-loading on the mechanical, transmission, optical and thermal properties of the film. The results showed that β-lactoglobulin nanoparticles with good stability could be obtained by adjusting the ambient pH to 7.1 and heating the temperature to 75 ℃ under the protein/ligand molar ratio of 1:8. The mechanical properties and water vapor barrier of the films were significantly improved when the nanoparticles were added to the trilayer composite films at concentrations of 0.2 and 0.3 mg/mL. Moreover, the addition of β-lactoglobulin nanoparticles improved the light transmittance and thermal stability of the trilayer composite film. In conclusion, the trilayer composite film made of alginate loaded with β-lactoglobulin nanoparticles exhibited good packaging properties and high application potential.
Comparative Study on Quality, Physiological Indexes and Aroma Components among Mulberry Varieties
Fengxuan ZHANG, Guimin TANG, Zhen WANG, Yong PENG, Dengchao ZHAO, Ming JIA, Lihua JIANG
2023, 44(13): 53-62.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022080101
Abstract(23) HTML(12) PDF(4)
Six mulberry varieties in Shandong Province were used to investigate their quality, physiological properties and volatile aroma components by sensory evaluation, physicochemical analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry techniques. The results showed that “Baiyuwang” and “Dashi” had the highest weight and shape index. “Heizhenzhu”and “Moyu” appeared the highest hardness (3.32, 2.67 kg/cm2) and solid-acid ratio (92.87, 82.76), as well as higher polygalacturonase (PG) and lipoxygenase (LOX) activity. But the higher juice yield (63.32%, 61.19%) was found in “Moyu” and “Dashi”. In addition, “Dashi” and “Hongguo” had higher anthocyanin (0.58, 0.53 mg/g), total phenolic content (2.48, 2.59 mg/g), strong DPPH and ABTS+ free radical scavenging ability, followed by “Longguai”, “Moyu” and “Heizhenzhu”, while “Baiyuwang” was the lowest in anthocyanin and total phenolic. The analysis of volatile aroma components showed that “Moyu” had the most aroma species and reached 62, followed by “Dashi” and “Baiyuwang”. Among them, the aroma components of “Heizhenzhu” and “Dashi” were mainly alcohols, however, “Moyu”, “Longguai” and “Baiyuwang” were mainly aldehydes, ketones and olefins. The common aroma components of the six varieties were mainly 2-amino-6-methylbenzoic acid and hexanal. The study provides a reference for the quality evaluation, processing and utilization of mulberry varieties.
Preparation and Property Analysis of Flavonoids Microcapsules from Tartary Buckwheat Sprout
Shan HUANG, Hui LIU, Luona ZHOU, Yang LU, Jun LI, Changheng CHEN, Du LÜ, Mu PAN, Yong ZENG
2023, 44(13): 63-70.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022080341
Abstract(18) HTML(10) PDF(2)
To improve the stability and bioavailability of tartary buckwheat sprout flavanoids, microcapsules containing tartary buckwheat sprout flavanoids (TBSF) were prepared according to spray drying process using carrageenan+modified starch, gum arabic (GA)+modified starch, maltodextrin (MD)+modified starch+gelatin as the wall materials. The structure and antioxidant activity of TBSF microcapsules were analyzed by measuring the water content, repose angle, hygroscopicity, DPPH and ABTS+ free radical scavenging capacity of microcapsules. The results indicated that the microcapsule prepared from carrageenan+modified starch showed best performance, which possessed lowest water content (6.58%), largest bulk density and smallest repose angle (13.20°), best fluidity, slowest hygroscopicity change, highest scavenging capacity of DPPH and ABTS+ free radicals, as well as highest uniformity with full and spherical surface. The embedding rate of GA+modified starch and MD+modified starch+gelatin microcapsules were 82.21% and 82.72%, respectively. Compared to carrageenan+modified starch, these two kinds of microcapsules displayed relative low antioxidant capacity, poor moisture absorption stability, large pores on the particle surface and worse uniformity. The fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis showed that three kinds of microcapsules contained characteristic absorption peaks of flavonoids. The release performance of three kinds of microcapsules in simulated intestinal fluid were all better than in simulated gastric juice, implied that the core materials (flavanoids) in microcapsules were mainly conducive to be released in the intestine and functioned as antioxidants. Totally, carrageenan+modified starch was an ideal wall material for production of TBSF microcapsules. Results would be helpful to promote the microencapsulation of tartary buckwheat sprout flavanoids and its application in the field of functional food.
Isolation, Purification, Monosaccharide Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Polysaccharides from Cortex Periplocae
Ruiping ZHANG, Zhaohui REN, Haonan ZHANG, Xiaoping ZHANG, Pengfei LIU, Xiaoli WANG
2023, 44(13): 71-78.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022080349
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Objective: In this experiment, polysaccharides from cortex periplocae (CPP) were isolated and purified, and their monosaccharide composition and antioxidant activity were investigated, so as to provide a reference for the development and application of CPP in the food industry. Methods: The crude polysaccharides were obtained by aqueous extraction, alcoholic precipitation and protein removal by Sevag method, and four polysaccharide fractions CPP0, CPP1, CPP2 and CPP3 were separated and purified by DEAE-52 cellulose column. The chemical composition, molecular weight, monosaccharide composition, infrared spectrum and antioxidant activity were analyzed. Results: The sugar contents of these four polysaccharides were 82.20%, 77.13%, 75.23% and 72.85%, respectively, and all of them contained glyoxylate. The relative molecular weights were 685, 477, 411 and 572 kDa, respectively. The four polysaccharides were all heteropolysaccharides composed of mannose, rhamnose, galacturonic acid, glucose, galactose and arabinose in different molar ratios. The infrared spectra showed that four polysaccharides contained β-glycosidic bonds and with furan rings. The antioxidant experiments showed that all four polysaccharides had certain antioxidant properties, and the overall antioxidant capacity was in the following order: CPP0>CPP3>CPP1>CPP2. Conclusion: The four acidic polysaccharides extracted from cortex periplocae have high sugar content, high relative molecular weight, and antioxidant activity, among which CPP0 fraction has the best antioxidant activity.
Changes of Hydroxy-octadecanodienoic Acids and Its Relationship with Lipids Oxidation during Traditional Salted Meat Processing
Yu LIU, Jiamei XU, Jinling LI, Pengpeng LI, Jingjing MA, Zhiming GENG, Daoying WANG, Weimin XU
2023, 44(13): 79-84.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022090002
Abstract(63) HTML(34) PDF(24)
In the study, variations of physicochemical factors, lipoxygenase (LOX) and hydroxyl octadecanodienoic acid (HODEs) were investigated during manufacturing of traditional salted meat, and the relationship between LOX and HODEs was studied and the evolution of lipids oxidation was tentatively discussed. The results indicated that LOX activity increased at salting stage, followed by decreasing continuously during the salted meat manufacturing. The total amount of HODEs increased slowly, while the ratio of 13-HODEs/9-HODEs decreased from 1.31 to 1.13. There was a significantly positive correlation between LOX activity and the ratio of 13-HODEs/9-HODEs (r=0.942, P<0.01). In the early stage of the salted meat manufacturing, enzymatic oxidation by LOX played a major role in lipids oxidation, and such a dominant position was gradually replaced by non-enzymatic lipids oxidation.
Effect of Homogenization Assisted with Enzymatic Treatment on the Structural and Functional Properties of Soybean Protein Nanoparticles
Jinge WANG, Yongjian CAI, Junmei LIU, Qiangzhong ZHAO
2023, 44(13): 85-93.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022090179
Abstract(27) HTML(11) PDF(5)
The commercial soy protein isolate (SPI) was used as raw material to prepare soy protein nanoparticles (SPNPs) through either single enzymatic treatment or homogenization assisted with enzymatic treatment. The structural characteristics of particle size, polydispersity index, morphology, Fourier transform infrared and endogenous fluorescence spectra of SPNPs, as well as the physicochemical properties of the pattern of intra-particle interactive forces, surface hydrophobicity, Zeta-potential, amphipathy, emulsifying, and foaming properties of SPNPs were comparably analyzed. It was found that the SPI with large particle size (230.00 nm), the SPNPs prepared by either enzymatic or homogenization assisted with enzymatic treatment at low degree (3%) of hydrolysis (DH) were spherical and showed smaller size distributions with z-average size from 64.20 to 144.80 nm. The analysis of secondary structure implied that SPNPs prepared by homogenization assisted with enzymatic treatment showed an increased ratio of α-helix/β-sheet to a narrow range of around 45%. Compared with SPNPs prepared by single enzymatic treatment, the SPNPs showed a stronger negative charge (−33 mV) under neutral conditions and higher H0, suggesting better emulsifying and foaming properties of the present SPNPs. Meanwhile, the results of the interactive force indicated that the hydrophobic interactions mainly dominated the structure formation of SPNPs, along with hydrogen bonds and disulfide bonds mainly stabilizing the external and internal structure of nanoparticles, respectively. The above results indicated that homogenization assisted with enzymatic treatment provided new solutions for the green preparation of multifunctional protein nanoparticles.
Effect of Spices on the Quality of Chinese Bacon
Peiling RAN, Yechuan HUANG, Chunlei PENG, Benbo XU, Keyuan ZHANG
2023, 44(13): 94-101.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022100003
Abstract(29) HTML(12) PDF(6)
In order to improve the quality of Chinese traditional smoked bacon, the 0.6%, 1.2% and 2.4% of spice extracts (including zanthoxylum bungeanum, star anise, bay leave, fennel, cinnamon and clove) were added in the processing of pickling. When being smoked, the corresponding proportion of spice residues after extract was added into the fumigation material. Following vacuum packing, the physicochemical, lipid and protein oxidation, nitrite residue, instrumental color, texture, microbial content, and sensory quality of the samples were respectively determined after 1 and 120 days of refrigeration. The results showed that the addition of 0.6% spice had little effect on bacon quality. The amount of addition amount increased to 1.2% and 2.4%, it could significantly inhibit lipid oxidation and microbial growth, and better maintained the soft texture and good elasticity of bacon during refrigeration. However, the addition of 2.4% had a little negative effect on instrumental color, sensory quality, and protein oxidation of products. Therefore, in the process of bacon processing, adding appropriate spices can improve the quality of bacon, and adding 1.2% spices has the best effect on improving the quality of bacon.
Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Different Extracted Parts from Branches and Leaves Extracts of the Peristrophe baphica (Spreng.) Bremek
Jiajia HUANG, Miaoyi SU, Ruyi WANG, Hongqian WU, Fang DONG, Yanjie LI, Yujing YAO
2023, 44(13): 102-109.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022100012
Abstract(37) HTML(14) PDF(2)
In this work, the ethanol extracts of the branches and leaves of Peristrophe baphica (Spreng.) Bremk (PB) as well as the different solvent extracted part of the ethanol extracts were prepared and their antioxidant and antibacterial activities were studied. The contents of total polyphenols and flavonoids of the extracts were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu and NaNO2-Al(NO3)3 method, respectively. The antioxidant activities were evaluated by DPPH radical scavenging ability, ABTS+ radical scavenging ability and total reducing power. The relation between the antioxidant activities and the ethanol extracts as well as the different solvent extracted parts was correlated. The antimicrobial activities of the extracts against several common pathogenic bacteria were determined by Oxford cup method. The results showed that the content of total polyphenols in ethyl acetate part were the highest for both branches and leaves, which was 79.76 mg/g and 80.21 mg/g, respectively. The highest content of flavonoids located in chloroform part of branches and the ethanol extract of leaves, which was 95.88 mg/g and 96.75 mg/g, respectively. The correlation analysis showed that the antioxidant activities of each part were strongly correlated with the contents of total polyphenols. In the test concentration range, different parts of tissue and different solvents had important influence on the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. The antioxidant activities of branches were better than those of leaves, but the antibacterial activities of leaves were better than those of branches. The ethyl acetate part of branches, the ethyl acetate part and the n-butanol part of leaves showed better antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and could be used for further application.
Identification and Biological Characteristics of Postharvest Pathogenic Fungi of Raspberries in Some Areas of Shanxi
Xiaoyu ZHANG, Zhenfeng GAO, Yaru HOU, Xinxian ZHANG, Yuanyuan CHEN, Lixin ZHANG
2023, 44(13): 110-118.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022060099
Abstract(32) HTML(20) PDF(9)
Raspberry (Rubus corchorifolius L. f.) is easy to be infected by pathogens after harvesting. The species of pathogens are not only related to the fruit species, but also related to the cultivation environment. In this study, the main pathogens of post-harvest raspberry were isolated and identified from three different producing areas of raspberry in Taiyuan, Yangquan and Changzhi of Shanxi Province and their biological characteristics were studied. The pathogens were isolated and purified to determine their species by combining morphological and molecular biological characteristics, so as to determine the spore production of pathogens in the same period and their growth under different conditions. The results indicated that Trichoderma koningiopsis, Penicillium crustosum, Botrytis sp. and Rhizopus arrhizus were the main pathogens infecting post-harvest raspberry in the three regions. Penicillium crustosum had the highest spore production capacity, followed by Botrytis sp. and Rhizopus arrhizus. The optimum pH for the growth of four pathogens was 7, with Penicillium crustosum growing the fastest. Botrytis sp. and Penicillium crustosum presented faster growing during storage at 0, 4 and 10 ℃, while Trichoderma koningiopsis and Rhizopus arrhizus grew slower at 0 and 4 ℃.
Secretory Expression and Properties of Laccase from Ganoderma lucidum in Aspergillus niger
Yu LIU, Tao YU, Yuxin ZHANG, Hui ZHANG, Tianqi LIU, Jie LI
2023, 44(13): 119-126.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022080103
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In the early stages, a high laccase-producing white rot fungus was identified as Ganoderma lucidum and the gene coding laccase was identified as lcc1 by secretory proteomic analysis and transcriptome sequencing. In this study, the genomic sequence named lcc1-D and cDNA sequences named lcc1-C of lcc1 gene were amplified by PCR, and their expression vectors pSZH6R-lcc1-D and pSZH6R-lcc1-C were constructed. By Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of Aspergillus niger TH-2, homozygous transformants of Aspergillus niger with homologous recombination at the glaA gene locus were screened. After shake flask fermentation, the laccase amount and enzyme activity of supernatant of recombinant strain lcc1-C and lcc1-D were detected by Native-PAGE and enzyme activity assay, the highest enzyme activity were 431.94 U/L and 218.06 U/L respectively. Real-time PCR results showed that the laccase mRNA level in lcc1-C was 3.38-fold higher than that in lcc1-D. The optimum reaction temperature and pH of recombinant laccase were 60 ℃ and 3.5 respectively. In dye decolorization experiments, it was found that the recombinant laccase had a significant decolorization effect on malachite green, neutral red and methyl orange, an anthraquinone dye. In the presence of laccase mediator, the decolorization effect of laccase on dyes was enhanced, and the decolorization efficiency of neutral red was the highest, reaching 91.21% after 48 hours. In order to improve the folding of recombinant laccase, osmoregulators were added into the fermentation medium of recombinant strain lcc1-C. The results showed that the enzyme activity reached 1301.67 U/L when 0.4 mol/L TMAO was added, which increased 1.97-fold. When 0.5 mol/L proline was added, the enzyme activity reached 2037.22 U/L, which increased 3.64-fold. When 0.5 mol/L glycine was added, the enzyme activity reached 1434.03 U/L, which increased 2.27-fold.
Analysis of A Plasmid from Lactobacillus acidophilus and the Construction of Shuttle Vectors
Bintao GU, Jianjun GUO, Jing ZENG, Junhui NIE, Tong WANG, Dawei XIONG, Guowen WEI, Lin YUAN
2023, 44(13): 127-133.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022080105
Abstract(19) HTML(16) PDF(2)
To analyze the endogenous plasmid pDX of Lactobacillus acidophilus, and construct the Escherichia coli-Lactobacillus acidophilus shuttle vector based on the plasmid. In this study, the endogenous plasmid pDX was isolated from Lactobacillus acidophilus XW118, its sequence determination and functional analysis were performed, and then the promotor of plasmid pDX was used to construct a vector that could shuttle between Escherichia coli and lactic acid bacteria. The activity of the endogenous plasmid replicon of L. acidophilus in E. coli and the host range, transformation efficiency and passage stability of the shuttle vector in lactic acid bacteria were studied. The results showed that the size of Lactobacillus acidophilus plasmid pDX was 2062 bp, the GC content was 38.2%, and the plasmid contained four open reading frames (ORFs), which was presumed to be a rolling loop replication plasmid. The copy number of plasmid pDX in L. acidophilus was 31.05. In this study, an E. coli-lactic acid bacteria shuttle vector based on the replicon and promoter of plasmid pDX was constructed. The transformation efficiency of the vector was 0.24×102 to 2.75×103 CFU/μg (plasmid weight), and the plasmid loss rate was 25.45% to 48.36%. In this study, a vector capable of shuttling between E. coli and lactic acid bacteria was constructed, and the promoter of the endogenous plasmid of lactic acid bacteria with activity in E. coli was obtained, which provided a new operational approach for genetic engineering of lactic acid bacteria and metabolic engineering of E. coli.
Preparation of Sulfated Xylans and Its in Vitro Proliferation of Probiotics
Xia LI, Qiying ZHANG, Yuan GUAN, Jing LI, Haishan CHEN, Lifen LI
2023, 44(13): 134-140.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022080112
Abstract(25) HTML(11) PDF(4)
This study aimed to determine the effect of sulfated xylans on the growth of probiotics. Xylan (Xyl) was chemically modified using the sulfamic acid-N,N-dimethylformamide method to produce sulfated xylan (SXY). The SXY was characterized by Fourier infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Congo red experiment. The Xyl and SXY were tested for their in vitro prebiotic effects using four strains of intestinal microflora, including Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (GIM1.155), L. plantarum (GIM1.191), L. brevis (GIM1.773), and Streptococcus thermophilus (GIM1.540). From the recorded infrared spectra, vibrational bands for SXY were observed at 894, 1052 and 1243 cm−1, they could be assigned to the C—O—S vibration of a C—O—SO3, C—O stretched and S=O stretching vibrations. The results of scanning electron microscopy showed that the surface structure of SXY increased smoothness. Congo red experiment revealed that SXY had a triple helix structure. The substitution degree of SXY measured using a BaCl2-gelatin turbidimeter was 0.341. In vitro experiment showed that the optimum concentration of SXY for the in vitro probiotic growth was 2.0%, rapid growth and increased proliferation were observed after 10 h of culture. The results obtained suggest that SXY could promote probiotic growth. It is an alternate source of prebiotics for maintaining gut health.
Isolation and Identification of Lactiplantibacillus plantarum ST3.5 and Its Inhibitory Effect on Mold
Xiaoyu WANG, Mengna WU, Qiaoru YU, Lixue MA, Di YAO, Liyuan ZHANG
2023, 44(13): 141-149.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022080334
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Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) has the potential to antagonize harmful microorganisms such as molds, which is expected to be safe and stable biological antimicrobial agents of the next generation. In present study, a strain ST3.5 with inhibiting mold activity was screened and obtained, which was identified as Lactiplantibacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) based on 16S rRNA sequencing. And its characteristics of acid resistance, bile salt resistance, inhibition of pathogenic bacteria, and drug resistance were analyzed. Furtherly, the cell-free supernatant (CFS) of L. plantarum ST3.5 was treated with acid, heat and enzyme, which the main antifungal substances were analyzed. The content of organic acids in supernatant was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the destruction of mold mycelium was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Meanwhile, the biological control experiment was carried out with corn kernels as an actual sample. The results showed that L. plantarum ST3.5 had good acid resistance and weak bile salt resistance. The strain was resistant to antibiotics (e.g., gentamicin and kanamycin) and sensitive to antibiotics (e.g., ampicillin and chloramphenicol), which could inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria. Analysis of organic acid found that the content of lactic acid in the CFS was the highest (22.02±0.23) g/L, followed by citric acid (4.99±0.04) g/L and acetic acid (3.67±0.06) g/L. The SEM results demonstrated the CFS could damage mold hyphae. Additionally, the biocontrol experiment confirmed that the CFS of L. plantarum ST3.5 could inhibit the mold residing growth of the corn surface. In conclusion, L. plantarum ST3.5 can inhibit the growth of mold, which can be used to develop biological control agents to minimize mold pollution and ensure food safety.
A Comparative Study on Physicochemical Indices and Fungal Community Composition of Medium-temperature and High-temperature Daqus from the Same Region
Yang YANG, Mansi NIU, Qiulian DAI, Shu LI, Caihong SHEN, Songtao WANG
2023, 44(13): 150-159.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022090313
Abstract(31) HTML(16) PDF(4)
In order to reduce the interference of seasonal, geographical and other factors and explore the effect of different peak-temperature control strategies on the fungal community of Daqu, this study mainly applied the high-throughput sequencing technology to analyze and compare the fungal community in medium-temperature and high-temperature Daqus collected from the same core production region of high-quality Baijiu. The correlation between the fungal community in Daqu and the main physicochemical indices was also evaluated by combining redundancy analysis. The results showed that the overall population of fungi (characterized by the copy numbers of ITS1 region of rDNA) in high-temperature Daqu was smaller than that in medium-temperature Daqu, but the richness, diversity, and evenness of overall fungal community in the former were higher than that in the latter. Thermoascus, Pichia, Aspergillus and Rhizopus accounted for a higher proportion in medium-temperature Daqu, with Thermoascus aurantiacus as the absolute advantage. Thermomyces, Rasamsonia, Monascus, and Byssochlamys accounted for a higher proportion in high-temperature Daqu, with Thermomyces lanuginosus as the absolute advantage. Based on the random forest prediction model, the first ten key ASVs that could best explain the differences between the two Daqu communities belonged respectively to three major groups including Thermoascus crustaceus (for 5 ASVs), Thermomyces spp. (for 4 ASVs), and Thermoascus aurantiacus (for 1 ASV). The results of redundancy analysis showed that Aspergillus, Rasamsonia and Hyphopichia in two types of Daqu had a positive correlation with saccharifying power, Pichia had a strong positive correlation with acidity, and Thermoascus had a strong positive correlation with moisture. This study further clarified the diversity of fungal community and biomarkers in Daqus with different peak-temperatures, explored the correlation between the fungal community in Daqu and the main physicochemical indices, and provided a reference for the optimization of Daqu making process and the screening of functional strains.
Processing Technology
Optimization of Extraction Process and Antioxidant Activity of Polysaccharide from Panax quinquefolium Fruit by Response Surface Methodology
Liming ZHAO, Xuyao GUO, Yingmin MAO, Daqing ZHAO, Baotai HUANG, Jiaqi LI, Li LIU, Bin QI
2023, 44(13): 160-166.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022070318
Abstract(45) HTML(13) PDF(9)
Objective: For the extraction of polysaccharides from American ginseng fruits, the extraction process was optimized in combination with response surface methodology, and to investigate whether polysaccharides from American ginseng fruits had antioxidant activity in vitro. Methods: In this study, polysaccharides were extracted from fresh American ginseng fruits by water extraction and alcohol precipitation method. The extraction process was optimized using single factor tests as well as response surface methodology. In vitro antioxidant activity studies of polysaccharides from American ginseng fruits were conducted from three aspects: DPPH radical scavenging rate, hydroxyl radical scavenging rate as well as reducing power. Results: The optimal process parameters were as follows: the extraction time was 2.5 h, the concentration of ethanol was 80%, the feed to liquid ratio of 1:16 g/mL, and the measured average value of polysaccharide yield was 29.47%±0.65%, which was comparable to the model predicted value. In vitro antioxidant activities of polysaccharides from American ginseng fruits were examined in the following three aspects. When the concentration of polysaccharides was 3.4 mg/mL, the DPPH radical scavenging rate was 75.14%±0.65%, and IC50 value was 0.71 mg/mL. When the concentration of polysaccharide was 3.4 mg/mL, the scavenging rate against hydroxyl radicals could reach 71.82%±1.43%, and IC50 value was 0.87 mg/mL. When the concentration of polysaccharides was 1.0 mg/mL, the total reducing power reached 0.730, and its in vitro antioxidant capacity was enhanced with increasing concentrations of polysaccharides from American ginseng fruits. Conclusion: The experimental results of antioxidant activities illustrated that polysaccharides from American ginseng fruits had better antioxidant activities. This study may provide a theoretical basis for further development and utilization of polysaccharides from American ginseng fruits, and ensure that traditional Chinese medicine resources can be fully utilized.
Optimization of Preparation Process and in Vitro Digestion Study of Anthocyanin/Fe3O4 Nanocomposites by Response Surface Methodology
Yun NIU, Qing WANG, Bin HAN, Xiaoli PENG
2023, 44(13): 167-175.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022080100
Abstract(30) HTML(26) PDF(5)
In order to improve the bioavailability of anthocyanins, a co-precipitation method was used to prepare anthocyanin/Fe3O4 nanocomposites in this study. The response surface method was used to optimize the synthesis of anthocyanin/Fe3O4 nanocomposites. The particle size analysis, Zeta potential measurement, scanning electron microscope, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and in vitro digestion simulation of anthocyanin/Fe3O4 nanocomposites were carried out. The results showed that the optimum conditions for the preparation of anthocyanin/Fe3O4 nnanocomposites were anthocyanin/Fe3O4 mass ratio of 1:46, reaction time 19.6 h, reaction temperature 47 ℃. The encapsulation rate of anthocyanin under these conditions was 87.51%. The particle size distribution of anthocyanin/Fe3O4 nanocomposites was concentrated in the range of 100~1200 nm with uniform distribution, and the Zeta potential was −48.15 mV. The formation of spherical particles with smooth surfaces between anthocyanin and Fe3O4 nanoparticles was observed by scanning electron microscopy. The anthocyanin/Fe3O4 nanocomplexes showed anthocyanin C=O and C-H characteristic peaks at 1635 cm−1 and 1083 cm−1. The in vitro digestion simulation showed that the retention of anthocyanin was 91.99% and 46.23% in gastric and intestinal fluids. The scavenging ability of DPPH and ABTS+ radicals was increased in the intestinal fluid (P<0.05). Therefore, co-precipitation method can improve the bioavailability of anthocyanins, and provide technical support for the efficient utilization of anthocyanins.
Process Optimization and Aroma Composition Analysis of Fermented Lonicera edulis Juice
Xin WANG, Haixin BI, Weiye XIU, Shiyou YU, Chunran HAN
2023, 44(13): 176-185.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022080121
Abstract(30) HTML(24) PDF(4)
To solve the problems of sour taste, seasonality, and storage difficulties of Lonicera edulis, fermented Lonicera edulis juice was produced by yeast. Its fermentation conditions were optimized by single-factor and orthogonal experiments, and the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to study the changes of aroma components of Lonicera edulis juice during fermentation under optimal conditions. The results showed that the optimal fermentation conditions for Lonicera edulis juice were fermentation temperature of 18 ℃, fermentation time of 8 d, yeast addition of 1%, under which the sensory score was 93.10±2.73 in fermented juice. A total of 62 aroma substances were detected during the fermentation of the juice under the optimal conditions, and four principal components were obtained by principal component analysis. The cumulative contribution of the first three components was 88.64%, and ethyl decanoate, ethyl acetate, ethyl 9-decenoate, ethyl caproate, heptanic acid and isoamyl alcohol were the main aroma components of juice during fermentation processing. The Lonicera edulis juice with rich flavor substances and pleasant taste could be gained with this method. The results of this study could provide the technological support for produce of Lonicera edulis fermented juice.
Preparation, Structural Characterization and in Vitro Activity of Chromium Complexes of Sweet Corn Cob Polysaccharide
Weiye XIU, Xin WANG, Yumeng LI, Shiyou YU, Chenchen LI, Yu LUO, Zhuo ZHOU, Yongqiang MA
2023, 44(13): 186-196.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022080338
Abstract(21) HTML(9) PDF(1)
To enhance the biological activity of sweet corn cob polysaccharide, a sweet corn cob polysaccharide chromium complex (SCP80-Cr) was prepared, characterized and its in vitro activity was also explored. The results showed that the optimal process conditions for the preparation were pH10.1, reaction temperature 74 ℃, polysaccharide concentration of 3 mg/mL, and the reaction time of 60 min. The weight percentage of Cr(III) in SCP80-Cr was 21.08% and the elemental percentage was 6.67%. The characterization revealed that SCP80-Cr contained almost no protein, nucleic acid or pigment, while Cr was conjugated with SCP80 in the form of Cr-O and Cr-OH and had strong molecular agglomeration properties. The molar percentage of the monosaccharide composition of SCP80-Cr was mannose: glucose: galactose: xylose: arabinose = 0.58: 89.50: 4.65: 1.33: 3.58. The results of in vitro hypoglycemia experiments showed that the IC50 of SCP80-Cr on α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitions were 4.70±0.38 mg/mL and 3.99±0.26 mg/mL, respectively. Moreover, the results of in vitro antioxidant experiments showed that SCP80-Cr scavenged DPPH radicals and hydroxyl radicals with IC50 of 4.80±0.34 mg/mL and 4.99±0.28 mg/mL, respectively, indicating that SCP80-Cr had better in vitro hypoglycemic and antioxidant activities compared with SCP80. The results of the study provided some references for the study of sweet corn cob polysaccharides in functional foods.
Optimization of Dendrobium offcinale Fondant Formulation and Its Antioxidant Activity Determination by Response Surface Methodology
Yuanchuan WANG, Xuemei GAO, Baojun YANG, Long NIE
2023, 44(13): 197-206.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022090061
Abstract(56) HTML(29) PDF(14)
Dendrobium offcinale was used as the main raw material, and erythritol, citric acid and gelatin were used as auxiliary ingredients to make Dendrobium offcinale fondant. Using sensory evaluation as the index, single-factor experiments and response surface experiments were used to study the optimal production process and formulation of Dendrobium offcinale fondant. Then, the in vitro antioxidant activity of the fondant was illustrated by the determination of the scavenging of DPPH radicals and superoxide anion radicals and their reducing ability of the optimal Dendrobium offcinale fondant, meanwhile, the textural properties of Dendrobium offcinale fondant were determined. The results showed that the addition of 92.90% of Dendrobium offcinale, 18.30% of gelatin, 0.14% of citric acid and 29.20% of erythritol was the best, and the sensory score was 83.50 at that time. The reducing sugar and polyphenol contents of Dendrobium offcinale fondant made according to the optimal formulation were analyzed as 30.03 g/100 g and 0.85 mg/g. Respectively, the results of in vitro antioxidant analysis showed that the in vitro antioxidant activity of Dendrobium offcinale fondant was similar to that of VC, and the half effective concentration (IC50) of Dendrobium offcinale fondant against 1,1-diphenyl-2-trinitrophenylhydrazine (DPPH) radical was 0.50 mg/mL and the IC50 value for the scavenging superoxide anion radicals was 0.13 mg/mL, which could prove that Dendrobium offcinale fondant had good antioxidant ability. The results of texture analysis concluded that the hardness of Dendrobium offcinale fondant ranged from 4600 to 4800 g, with suitable softness and hardness, the chewiness of Dendrobium offcinale fondant ranged from 4200 to 4300 g, and the acceptability was higher.
Formulation Optimization of Coconut Oil Complex Gel Fudge and the Effect of Storage Time on Its Textural Properties
Shumin LIU, Xiaodan CHEN, Kailin ZENG, Xiaojun HU
2023, 44(13): 207-213.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022090144
Abstract(20) HTML(23) PDF(4)
In order to broaden the application of coconut oil, virgin coconut oil, gelatin and pectin were used to prepare complex gel fudge. The optimal formulation of coconut oil complex gel fudge was obtained via single-factor test and orthogonal tests with sensory score as evaluation index, and the effect of storage time on the texture of gel fudge was also investigated. The results showed that the optimal technological parameters of coconut oil complex gel fudge were as follows: Coconut oil 9.44 g, total sugar 34.00 g, total gum 35.89 g, among which the mass ratio of maltose, xylitol and brown sugar was 24:5:5, the mass ratio of total sugar and total gum was 36:38, and the mass ratio of coconut oil and sugar gum was 10:74. The complex gel fudge prepared under this formula had rich coconut flavor, smooth and non-sticky, proper sweetness, and the sensory score was 84.22±1.17. Results of texture analysis showed that the hardness, gumminess and chewiness of the coconut oil complex gel fudge increased extremely significantly with the extension of storage time (P<0.01), but the elasticity did not change significantly (P>0.05). This study provides references for coconut oil utilization.
Optimization of Purification of Tea Polyphenols with Macroporous Adsorption Resin and Research of Their Antioxidant Activity
Xiaojie LI, Jinxin LIU, Jianhua LI, Yali TAN, Weili DU, Xiao LI
2023, 44(13): 214-223.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022090164
Abstract(36) HTML(18) PDF(5)
To optimize the technical condition for purification of tea polyphenols with macroporous adsorption resin, the static adsorption and desorption performance of macroporous adsorption resin of fourteen types were compared to select the best type of resin. The optimal purification process conditions were determined by single factor and response surface experiments, and the reuse and regeneration times of the resin were further investigated. Meanwhile, the antioxidant activities of tea polyphenols before and after purification were investigated by in vitro experiments with VC as the control. The results showed that LX-8 resin had the best adsorption-desorption effect on tea polyphenols, which could be reused 5 times and regenerated 6 times. The optimum purification conditions were as below: The sample concentration of 6.4 mg/mL, the sample pH value of 5.4, the loading volume of 100 mL, the sample flow rate of 1.0 mL/min, ethanol concentration of 76% eluting agent volume of 180 mL, and desorption rate of 1.0 mL/min. Under these conditions, the recovery rate of tea polyphenols was 86.9% and the purity was 74.6%. In vitro antioxidant activity studies revealed that the total antioxidant capacity, DPPH· scavenging capacity and ·OH scavenging capacity of the purified tea polyphenols were significantly increased. And with the increase of polyphenol concentration, its antioxidant capacity enhanced. The total antioxidant capacity of the purified tea polyphenol (1 mg/mL) was 80.59 U/mL. The IC50 of the purified tea polyphenol on scavenging ability of DPPH· and ·OH were 0.0326 and 0.4167 mg/mL respectively. Although the antioxidant activity of pure extract was lower than that of VC, it was higher than that of crude extract, indicating that the antioxidant activity of tea polyphenols could be significantly improved by this process, and when the concentration of the purified tea polyphenol was 1 mg/mL, its DPPH· scavenging rate was close to that of VC. This research provided a theoretical reference for the industrial production and utilization of tea polyphenols.
Preparation and Physiological Activity of Carboxymethylated Siraitia grosvenorii Polysaccharide with Different Degrees of Substitution
Guizhen LIU, Zhiwei YANG
2023, 44(13): 224-232.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022090194
Abstract(20) HTML(19) PDF(2)
To investigate the effect of carboxymethylated with different degrees of substitution on the properties of Siraitia grosvenorii polysaccharide (SGP), carboxymethylated Siraitia grosvenorii polysaccharide (CSGP) was prepared by solvent method by using the raw material of SGP. The effects of chloroacetic acid concentration, reaction time, and sodium hydroxide concentration on the degree of substitution were analyzed, and the CSGP with the degree of substitution ranging from 0.28 to 1.09 was prepared. The physicochemical properties of CSGP with different substitution degrees were characterized, and the effects of substitution degrees on hypoglycemic activity and antioxidant activity were investigated by in vitro physiological activity experiments. The high-performance gel permeation chromatography revealed that the molecular mass of CSGP was smaller than that of SGP. The results of FTIR manifested a new absorption peak at 1317 cm−1, indicating that carboxymethyl was successfully introduced into the polysaccharide. The results of scanning electron microscopy showed that with the increase of substitution degree, the surface morphology of CSGP became more fragmented and appeared to curl. Congo red experiment revealed that the triple helix structure of CSGP with high substitution degree disappeared. In vitro physiological activity experiment showed that 6 mg/mL of the CSGP-M had the highest α-amylase inhibition, DPPH, and hydroxyl radical scavenging rates of 44.36%±1.30%, 63.17%±2.07%, and 70.21%±1.89%, respectively. Compared with SGP, CSGP-L and CSGP-H, CSGP-M with medium degree of substitution has the best hypoglycemic activity and antioxidant activity in vitro. When the degree of substitution was increased to 1.09, the inhibition rate of α-amylase, DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging rate of CSGP-H decreased to 11.65%±0.26%, 47.45%±0.79%, and 34.85%±0.78%, respectively. The results indicated that CSGP with medium degree of substitution could exert the best physiological activity.
Extraction Optimization and Antioxidant Activity of Bound Polyphenols in Bamboo Shoot Dietary Fiber
Sha RAN, Fusheng ZHANG, Bin LI, Jinlai YANG, Liangru WU, Jiong ZHENG
2023, 44(13): 233-241.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022090198
Abstract(28) HTML(12) PDF(2)
To investigate the optimal extraction process, component composition and antioxidant activity of bound polyphenols in bamboo shoots dietary fiber (BSDF), the extraction time, extraction temperature, alkali concentration and liquid-to-material ratio on the extraction yield were researched in this paper. Thereafter, the extraction process of bound polyphenols in BSDF was optimized by Box-Behnken response surface experiment based on single-factor experiments. The components of bound polyphenols were preliminarily identified and the antioxidant activity such as ABTS cation radicals, DPPH radicals, superoxide anion radicals and hydroxyl radicals were investigated. The results showed that alkali concentration of 9 mol/L, extraction temperature of 40 °C, extraction time of 4 h and liquid-to-material ratio of 20:1 mL/g were the optimal condition. Under this condition, the predicted extraction amount of bound polyphenols in BSDF was 27.95 mg GAE/g BSDF while the actual extraction amount was 26.68±0.73 mg GAE/g BSDF, with a prediction accuracy of 95.46%. There were 12 polyphenolic components including sinapic acid, gallic acid, ferulic acid, and coumaric acid were preliminarily identified by ultra performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. The free radical scavenging rate of polyphenols extract initially increased and then gradually stabilized with the increase of mass concentration. The scavenging rates of ABTS cation radical, superoxide anion radical and hydroxyl radical reached 73.24%, 59.92% and 51.41% with mass concentration of 3.0 mg/mL, respectively. The scavenging rate of DPPH radical reached 76.79% when the concentration was 1.25 mg/mL. The scavenging rate of each group was less than that of ascorbic acid solution of the same mass concentration. The results can provide theoretical reference for the development and utilization of polyphenols in BSDF.
Optimization of Aqueous Two-phase Extraction Technology of Total Flavonoids from Lonicera japonica Thunb. Leaves and Its Antioxidant Activity
Xiaolu XU, Guoqing DAI, Hanfeng WEI, Jie YU
2023, 44(13): 242-248.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022100038
Abstract(30) HTML(22) PDF(6)
The ethanol-ammonium sulfate aqueous two-phase extraction of total flavonoids from the leaves of Lonicera japonica Thunb. leaves was studied, and the antioxidant activity of the total flavonoids was further discussed. The extraction process was optimized by orthogonal test with the parameters including mass fraction of ammonium sulfate, liquid-to-material ratio, extraction temperature and extraction time as independent variables and the yield of the flavonoids as index. The antioxidant activity of the total flavonoids was evaluated by measuring the clearance rates of DPPH free radicals, hydroxyl free radicals and superoxide anion free radicals. The optimum experimental conditions were as follows: The mass fraction of ammonium sulfate was 15%, the liquid-to-material ratio was 25:1 mL/g, the extraction temperature was 50 ℃, and the extraction time was 30 min. Below this term, the yield of flavonoids was 4.98%. The clearance rate of DPPH free radicals was 97.61% when the concentration of total flavonoids from the leaves of Lonicera japonica Thunb. was 0.48 mg/mL, and those of the hydroxyl free radicals and superoxide anion free radicals were 86.53% and 75.29%, respectively, when the concentration of flavonoids was 0.72 mg/mL, showing good antioxidant activity.
Preparation and Emulsification Performance Analysis of Octenyl Succnic Anhydride Modified Strach from Mechanical Activated Sago Strach
Jiatian YANG, Jinming TANG, Yamei ZHANG, Yu MIAO, Qingwei JIANG, Yuan CHEN
2023, 44(13): 249-256.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022110214
Abstract(22) HTML(16) PDF(3)
The sago starch was mechanically activated by a stirring-type ball mill as pretreatment, and the octenyl succinic acid starch ester was prepared by the esterification agent octenyl succinic anhydride. By adopting the degree of substitution (DS) as evaluating parameters, activation time, reaction time, the amount of octenyl succinic anhydride, reaction tem-perature, and pH on the esterification of sago starch were investigated respectively. The results indicated that mechanical activation significantly improved the esterification of sago starch octenyl succinic anhydride. Under the same reaction conditions, the degree of substitution and reaction efficiency of activated starch increased significantly. Through the orthogonal test, the optimal conditions for the preparation of activated 1.0 h starch ester could be determined: The reaction time was 2.0 h, the amount of octenyl succinic anhydride was 3%, the pH value was 8.0, and the temperature was 35 ℃. Under such conditions, the degree of substitution of starch ester prepared by esterification was 0.02294, the reaction efficiency was 98.01%. The results of the FTIR, XRD and SEM indicated that the FTIR spectrum of octenyl succinic anhydride sago starch showed new absorption peaks at 1570 cm−1 and 1712 cm−1, the crystallinity of starch decreased, and the surface of starch granules was damaged, with large holes appeared in the middle of starch granules. Thus the esterification reaction of sago starch was further confirmed. The emulsifying property of octenyl succnic anhydride modified strach with substitution degree of 0.02294 was 26.43%, and the emulsifying stability was 24.10%, which were superior to those of the original sago starch ester.
Food Safety
Prevalence and Antibiotics Resistance of Proteus mirabilis in Raw Meat
Chenglu LAN, Yilin HU, Man WANG, Chuyi LI, Shuilian BI
2023, 44(13): 257-263.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022100028
Abstract(26) HTML(17) PDF(1)
To understand the contamination and antibiotic resistance of Proteus mirabilis in raw meat, a total of 579 samples of pork, chicken, and duck meats were collected from 5 markets, and P. mirabilis in the samples was isolated and identified. The susceptibility to 21 antibiotics of the P. mirabilis isolated in this study was tested by the disk diffusion method. A total of 490 P. mirabilis in those 579 samples were isolated and identified. The contamination rates of P. mirabilis in pork, chicken, and duck meats were 65.61%, 78.95%, and 67.90%, respectively. Market 5 had the highest contamination rate (82.00%) among the chicken samples. The antibiotic resistance rates of all P. mirabilis isolates to erythromycin was the highest, which was higher than 97.85% in all markets, followed by trimethoprim (78.00%~93.68%), doxycycline (73.12%~79.82%), spectinomycin (65.26%~88.17%), tetracycline (64.52%~79.95%), streptomycin (60.55%~86.02%), trimethoprim-sulfameth (52.29%~87.10%), and gentamicin (51.61%~76.15%), all of which were more than 50.00%. The multiple-drug resistance of 490 strains of P. mirabilis was severe with a rate of 100.00%. P. mirabilis strains with pan drug-resistance to all 8 classes of antibiotics accounted for 14.90%. In conclusion, the fresh meats from 5 markets were seriously contaminated by P. mirabilis, and all the isolates had multiple-drug resistance. The contamination and antibiotic resistance of P. mirabilis in this area should be continuously monitored in order to provide more information for the prevention and control of food poisoning and the selection of clinical medication.
Analysis and Determination
Analysis of Flavor Substances in Longtian Zha Meat
Zhuoqi DONG, Zhao ZHANG, Shuiyan JIANG, Fengjun XIAO, Yanyang WU, Aihua LOU
2023, 44(13): 264-271.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022050373
Abstract(28) HTML(15) PDF(9)
The aim of this study was to analyze the unique quality characteristics and to identify the key volatile flavor compounds in Longtian Zha meat. In this study, volatile flavor substances, amino acids and fatty acids of Longtian Zha meat were detected and analyzed. The key volatile flavor compounds were identified by relative odor activity value method. The result showed that, for the meat part, 14 key volatile compounds were detected, of which trans-2,4-decadienal was the main volatile flavor compound, and imparted the oily and meaty aroma to Longtian Zha meat. For the part of radish, 19 key volatile compounds were detected, among which 2-undecanal, decanal and 1-octen-3-ol were the main volatile flavor compounds and provided the fragrance, lavender, rose, and fruit aroma to Longtian Zha meat. The total amino acid content in Longtian Zha was 192.2 mg/g, including 38.29% of essential amino acids and 47.45% of umami taste amino acids. Longtian Zha meat was rich in unsaturated fatty acids (59.41% of the total fatty acids). The results showed that Longtian Zha meat was rich in volatile substances such as 2-undecenaldehyde, decanal and 1-octene-3-ol, delicious amino acids and unsaturated fatty acids.
Determination of Amylose and Amylopectin in Sorghum by Iodine Colorimetric Method
Yun TANG, Haiyan YAN, Yaxiong ZHAO, Dan HUAN, Wenwen ZONG, Feihong SONG
2023, 44(13): 272-280.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022070293
Abstract(33) HTML(17) PDF(13)
Objective: The content of starch was closely related to the derivative products of sorghum. It was very important to determination of the content of starch, including amylose (Am) and amylopectin (Ap) in sorghum. In this study, the content of Am and Ap was determined by the iodine colorimetry. And conditions of pretreatment and determination were optimized. Method: Using Am and Ap in sorghum as the main object, the content of starch was measured by the iodine colorimetry with different detection methods, including the single wavelength mixed standard method (I), the dual wavelength single standard method (II), and the dual wavelength mixed standard method (III). A series of methodological verifications, such as the precision, detection limit and quantification limit, were compared. And the conditions of pretreatment, such as NaOH and KOH dispersant, gelatinization temperature and time, acetic acid and hydrochloric acid pH regulator, dosage of iodine reagent and color rendering time were optimized. The repeatability verification recovery rate and the determination of common grain samples of the obtained method was also tested, which verified the accuracy of the method. Result: The detection limits and quantification limits of the three methods could meet the requirements of the actual sample measurement range, with detection limits of Am≤0.55 mg/L, Ap≤2.75 mg/L, quantification limits of Am≤1.65 mg/L, Ap≤8.33 mg/L. The absolute error of the accuracy experiments was 0.13% from the mixed standard solution calibration curve, the single standard solution calibration curve error was relatively large (7.47%), thus the mixed standard solution was better to prepare the calibration curve. The optimal preprocessing of sorghum: Using NaOH as the dispersant, the gelatinization temperature at 70 ℃ for 10~20 min, with acetic acid or hydrochloric acid as pH regulator, using standard iodine reagent concentration, controlling the coloring time at 20~30 min, the determination results were relatively stable and accurate. The total content of starch was consistent with the starch content in theory, and it had a good repeatability and recovery (80%~120%). Conclusion: In summary, the dual wavelength mixed standard method of iodine colorimetry was a best method for measuring the content of Am and Ap in sorghum, and it was more suitable for the determination of actual samples in crops.
Analysis of Chemical Constituents in Percolate the Extract of Cyclocarya paliurus Tender Leaves by UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS
Boji MA, Yan XIAO, Zude CHEN, Rengeng SHU, Bingtao LI, Li JIANG, Guoliang XU, Qiyun ZHANG
2023, 44(13): 281-291.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022070294
Abstract(30) HTML(19) PDF(2)
To analyze the chemical components of the tender leaves of Cyclocarya paliurus, a rapid qualitative analysis of the chemical components of the percolation extracts of the tender leaves of Cyclocarya paliurus was carried out by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS). Mass spectrum data were collected in the positive and negative ion modes, and MassHunter qualitative analysis software was used, according to the retention time and mass spectrum information of each compound, combined with existing literature and mass spectrum databases, the compounds were analyzed for the fragmentation rule, 94 compounds were identified from Cyclocarya paliurus, including 29 flavonoids, 16 triterpenes, 25 organic acids, 24 other compounds. The analysis results showed that the percolation extract of Cyclocarya paliurus contained flavonoids, organic acids, triterpenoids, coumarins, amino acids, and other compounds, and malic acid, hesperidin, rosin, 6,7-dihydroxycoumarin, 6-methylcoumarin, 5,7-dimethoxycoumarin are found in Cyclocarya paliurus for the first time. This study can lay a foundation for further clarifying the material basis of Cyclocarya paliurus. It provides a theoretical basis for the development of relevant products of Cyclocarya paliurus.
Analysis of Functional Components of Kangding Ganoderma leucocontextum and Its Antioxidant and Hypoglycemic Activity in Virto
Boyu ZHU, Yongqing ZHU, Hang CHEN, Zhuoya XIANG, Jiajun ZHAO, Junlin DENG, Jian CHEN, Xing YANG, Chen XIA
2023, 44(13): 292-298.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022070330
Abstract(28) HTML(24) PDF(4)
The contents of polysaccharides, triterpenes, ganoderic acid A, ganoderic acid C1 and ganoderic acid F in Kangding Ganoderma leucocontextum were analyzed by pharmacopoeia and HPLC. The antioxidant activities were evaluated by DPPH· and ABTS+· scavenging abilities and total antioxidant capacity, and hypoglycemic activities were evaluated by the inhibitory effect on α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities. The results showed that the contents of polysaccharides and triterpenes in Kangding Ganoderma leucocontextum were 1.15% and 1.50%, and the contents of ganoderic acid A, ganoderic acid C1 and ganoderic acid F were 0.052%, 0.020% and 0.064%, respectively. The antioxidant activities and hypoglycemic activities in vitro showed that IC50 values of polysaccharide extract for DPPH· and ABTS+· scavenging were 0.75 mg/mL and 1.24 mg/mL, and IC50 values of α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities were 1.45 mg/mL and 1.97 mg/mL, respectively. The IC50 values of triterpenoids extract for DPPH· and ABTS+· radical scavenging were 0.65 mg/mL and 1.06 mg/mL, and the IC50 values of α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities were 1.44 mg/mL and 1.09 mg/mL, respectively. The results of this study show that Kangding Ganoderma leucocontextum contain high content of functional components, and presented favourable antioxidant and hypoglycemic activities, which would provide the theoretical basis for the development and utilization of Kangding Ganoderma leucocontextum in food, medicine and health products.
Flavor Evolution of Honey Peach Juice Based on Raw Material Maturity
Jiayan GUO, Yan CUI, Xiaoting XUAN, Jiangang LING, Xingfeng SHAO
2023, 44(13): 299-307.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022080107
Abstract(31) HTML(16) PDF(7)
Fruit maturity is a major factor associated with the final juice’s flavor quality. To explore the flavor changes and differences of the honey peach juice processed from different maturities, ‘Hujingmilu’ honey peaches from three different maturities were selected for the study. Flavor profiles of honey peach juice with different maturities were separated and identified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry (GC-IMS). The results showed that sucrose and malate were the major accumulation forms in mature fruits. 70% maturity fruit juice had the lowest total sugar and total acid content. The total sugar (112.58 mg/g FW), sweetness value (99.40), sugar-acid ratio (15.57), and sweet-acid ratio (13.74) of the 80% maturity fruit juice were relatively high, and the sweet and sour flavor was strong. Meanwhile, the relative content of alcohol (11.79%) in 80% maturity fruit juice was higher, giving the juice a strong fruity and sweet aroma. The sweetness value (93.35), sugar-acid ratio (13.38), and sweet-acid ratio (11.93) of the 90% maturity fruit juice were the lowest. As the maturity increased, the ester content gradually increased, while the aldehyde content gradually decreased. The principal component analysis showed that 80% maturity fruit juice was suitable for processing high-quality honey peach juice, with a suitable sweet-sour taste, and strong fruity, floral aromas. This study provides theoretical and data support for the research and development of honey peach juice based on natural flavor.
Characterization of Volatile Flavors of Fermented Sea-buckthorn Yoghurt Using Gas Chromatography-Ion Mobility Spectroscopy
Bingkun YANG, Ning JU, Yuhong DING, Rong GUO, Mianhong GONG
2023, 44(13): 308-315.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022080120
Abstract(50) HTML(20) PDF(11)
The purpose of this study was to explore the volatile characteristic flavor compounds in sea-buckthorn yoghurt, and to clarify the influences of fermentation with sea-buckthorn on the quality and flavor compounds of yoghurt. The volatile compounds were analyzed by sensory evaluation and headspace solid phase microextraction gas chromatography ion mobility spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-IMS) combined with multivariate statistical analysis method to realize the characterization of characteristic volatile compounds in fermented sea-buckthorn yoghurt. The results showed that sea-buckthorn yoghurt had many volatile substances, and the main sources of volatile substances were esters, ketones and aldehydes. The fermentation process reduced the sour taste of sea-buckthorn juice, made the taste softer and the aroma richer and more typical. The principal component analysis (PCA) was used to screen out compounds that contributed more to aroma, and the cluster heat map analysis was used to classify volatile compounds into three categories. Among them, 2,2,4,6,6-pentamethylheptane, ethyl acetate(monomer), ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, propyl butanoate, butyl formate(dimer), 2-furfurylthiol,formic acid, 3-methylbutyl ester, ethyl acetate(dimer) and butyl formate(monomer) were the main flavor substances of fermented sea-buckthorn yoghurt. This study provided a research idea for the characteristic flavor of compound yogurt, and the results provided a theoretical basis for the subsequent flavor improvement of sea-buckthorn yogurt.
Analysis of Quality Change of Capsicum annuum in Growing Process from Different Producing Areas
He XIAO, Yang LIU, Xinyao WANG, Qiu DU, QIN Yeyou, Jialiang HU, Rongrong WANG, Liwen JIANG
2023, 44(13): 316-324.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022080125
Abstract(21) HTML(14) PDF(4)
As the common varieties of chopper pepper process, “La Feng 33” was selected as the research object. Five different growth stages of pepper from Shandong and Shanxi provinces were analyzed to explore the quality changes of pepper fruit during the growth process, which was essential for regulating the quality of chopped pepper and expanding the raw material sources. The results showed that the change trend of quality characteristics of pepper in the two regions was basically the same during the growth process. The content of VC and total capsaicin increased with fruit growth to some extent; soluble solids, acidity, total polyphenols, DPPH· scavenging capacity, FRAP, ABTS+· scavenging capacity decreased first and then increased with fruit growth; organic acids, total ash, Mg, Ca, Mn and Fe decreased with fruit growth. In addition, the contents of VC, soluble solids, organic acids and total capsaicin in Shandong producing area were higher than those in Shanxi producing area (P<0.05), but the peppers from Shanxi Province only had advantages in fruit length, fruit width and single fruit weight. Cluster analysis showed that the quality of pepper at the same growth stage was similar in different producing areas, and the green ripening stage (S3) was the turning point of quality change in the growth process of pepper. Overall, the quality change was similar between Shandong and Shanxi producing area, and the red ripe stage (S4) was beneficial for pepper chopping processing.
Assisted Extraction Combined with Effervescent Tablets and Rhodamine B Fluorescence Probe for Rapid Detection of Elemental Mercury in Grain
Jinglei ZHANG, Liangang ZHANG, Lieqin NIU, Xinkui ZHOU, Haibo SHEN, Jianmin LI, Jianru FANG
2023, 44(13): 325-331.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022080136
Abstract(24) HTML(14) PDF(2)
To establish a rapid method for determination of mercury in grain, Rhodamine type B fluorescent probe was synthesized and used as the carrier and chromogenic group of the probe system. The original fluorescent probe system was made into a visible light probe system, where this principle was used in conjunction with extraction assisted by effervescent tablets to establish a rapid method for the detection of elemental mercury (Hg) in grain. The initial speed of the blast reaction was controlled via the use of the bubble tablet blast method and the loss of Hg could be reduced in the course of the initial blast. After combining with different concentrations of Hg, the probe system make the originally colorless probe system turn into a rosy red color. The color developing probe system was in the range of 0.5~20 ng/g of Hg content in the sample at 550 nm, and the shade of color was proportional to the Hg content, whose range in the samples could also be assessed using a colorimetric card with naked eye. In the present study, the recoveries were 90.98%~102.46%, the precision RSD was 2.76%~4.76% and the detection limit was 1.0 ng/g. The rapid detection method has the advantages of high efficiency, accuracy, high sensitivity, specificity and wide applicability. Taken together, it is suitable for bulk screening and detection of elemental mercury in grains, wheat and other grains and their food products. Also, the method and principle might provide novel insights for the field of visualization probe rapid detection.
Comparative Analysis on Aromatic Components of Sun-dried Green Tea from Different Townships in Menghai County
Qiaomei XIAO, Xiaoyu ZHANG, Juan WANG, Caiyou LÜ
2023, 44(13): 332-339.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022080143
Abstract(20) HTML(13) PDF(4)
In this paper, sensory evaluation, electronic nose and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were used to analyze the main aromatic components and differences of sun-dried green tea in different townships of Menghai County. Sensory evaluation showed that the main aroma types of sun-dried green tea in townships were different, with fruit aroma in the Bulang Mountain, green aroma in Xiding, woody aroma in Meng'a and Mengzhe, floral aroma in Mengman, Gelang and Mengsong. The results of electronic nose showed that the aroma of sun-dried green tea in different townships was significantly different, and W1S, W1W, W2S and W2W sensors played a major role in distinguishing. In PCA analysis, the Bulang Mountain and Meng'a Mingxian were different from other townships. A total of 77 volatile substances were detected in sun-dried green tea from 7 townships by GC-MS, mainly including olefins, alkanes and alcohols, the most abundant being linalool, d-limonene, cedrol, limonene, α-cedrene. The result of Clustering thermogram showed that the general similarity of volatile substances in Gelanghe, the Bulang Mountain, Mengsong, Mengman and Xiding was the highest, and the difference between Meng'a, Mengzhe and other towns was the largest. There were 38 components with aroma description could be divided into three types: fruit aroma, flower aroma and woody aroma(green). The total relative content of volatile matter of each aroma type varied greatly in different townships. The highest total relative content of volatile matter of fruit aroma, flower aroma and woody aroma (green) types were the Bulang Mountain, Mengman and Mengzhe respectively. 2~3 kinds of special aromatic components could be found in the sun-dried green tea in other townships except Mengsong. Among them, the Bulang Mountain had safranal and naphthalene, Mengman had benzaldehyded and 1, 2, 4-trimethylbenzene, Meng'a had p-cymene and (-)-α-pinene, Gelanghe had 4-carene, cyclohexanol and α-pinene, Mengzhe had (S)-(-)-α-terpineol, (R)-camphor, and cedrene, Xiding had α-ocimene. The comprehensive analysis showed that there were great differences in sensory evaluation and volatile aroma types, types and relative content of the aroma of sun-dried green tea in different townships of Menghai, showed distinctive aroma quality characteristics.
Determination of 36 Veterinary Drug Residues in Cooked Meat by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-tandem Mass Spectrometry
Fei ZHANG, Yuan WANG, Xiaoning MA, Jinlei ZHANG, Jingting GONG, Mingxin FU
2023, 44(13): 340-348.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022080155
Abstract(37) HTML(18) PDF(6)
A method was developed for the determination of amantadine sulfonamides, quinolones and chloramphenicols in cooked meat. The samples were extracted with acetonitrile-water mixtures (V:V=8:2), purified with PRiME HLB solid phase extraction column. 36 veterinary drugs were determined by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) with an electrospray ion source (ESI±) in positive and negative ion switching scanning mode. The results showed that the 36 veterinary drugs showed a good linear relationship in the concentration range of 0.5~20.0 ng/mL (R2>0.999). The limits of detection were 0.10 μg/kg and the limits of quantitation were 0.33 μg/kg. The average recovery was 70.8%~106.9% in the range of high, medium and low concentrations (0.5, 1.0 and 5.0 μg/kg). The relative standard deviations (RSD, n=6) was 0.2%~6.2%. The method is simple, sensitive and accurate, and could be used for the determination of 36 veterinary drug residues in cooked meat.
Storage and Preservation
Prediction of the Shelf Life of Fried Crispy Dates by Combining Two Packaging Materials with Vacuum Storage
Yutong DU, Kai CHEN, Chunping CHENG, Mingqiang XU, Xuefei WANG, Tian WANG, Huanrong LI
2023, 44(13): 349-355.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022040219
Abstract(34) HTML(19) PDF(3)
In order to investigate the deterioration of the quality of low-temperature fried crisp dates during storage, four packaging methods, including PET vacuum packaging, PET vacuum+deoxidiser packaging, aluminium foil vacuum packaging and aluminium foil vacuum+deoxidiser packaging, were used to analyse the changes of acid value and peroxide value at different storage temperatures (25, 35 and 45 ℃) and to establish a prediction model for the shelf life of low-temperature fried crisp dates by combining the Arrhenius formula. The results showed that the acid value and peroxide value of fried crispy dates in the four packaging methods showed an increasing trend at different storage temperatures, with a low rate of change at 25 ℃. In terms of packaging effect, the lowest oxidation rate was observed in the aluminium foil vacuum+deoxidiser packaging method (K value = 0.0131 for acid value kinetic model and K value=0.0147 for peroxide value kinetic model), and the R2 of the predicted shelf-life model was >0.90, with a good fit and the model error of the predicted shelf-life value was less than 10%. By comparing the quality changes of vacuum and low-temperature fried crispy dates in different packaging methods, the best result was obtained with the aluminium foil vacuum+deoxidiser packaging, which increased the acid value by 0.322 mg/g and peroxide value by 0.026 g/100 g for 60 days at room temperature, and the predicted shelf life reached 180 days.
Effects of Edible Fungi on Pork Intestine Quality and Volatile Flavor Compounds during Cold Storage
Pingwei LENG, Yiwen MEI, Huiqin LU, Fei QIN, Yu ZHANG, Lina WANG, Linlin WANG
2023, 44(13): 356-366.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022080094
Abstract(33) HTML(11) PDF(2)
To investigate the effects of adding natural mushroom powder on pork sausage quality and volatile flavor compounds, in this study, 7 kinds of edible mushroom powder (Shiitake mushroom, Pleurotus eryngii, Pleurotus ostreatus, Agaricus blazei, Hericium erinaceus, and Chicken oil fungus) were added into the pork sausages as the research objects and determined the quality change of pork sausages after storage at 4 ℃ for 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 days, and the volatile flavor substances of pork sausages were determined and analyzed by GC-MS. The results showed that there were significant differences in the edible quality of sausage added with edible fungi (P<0.05). Among them, the effects of Chicken oil fungus, Shiitake mushroom, Agaricus blazei and Hericium erinaceus on pH, water retention, texture and rheology were significant (P<0.05). The emulsifying ability of pork sausage was decreased by adding edible fungi, and it decreased with the extension of cold storage time. Meanwhile, the thiobarbituric acid value (TBARS) of pork sausage decreased with the addition of edible fungi with the extension of cold storage time. Alcohols, aldehydes, ketones and esters account for the largest proportion, and they were also the most influential substances on pork sausage flavor during cold storage. On the 9th day of cold storage, the types of volatile substances detected in the blank group were less than those in all treatment groups. The alcohol substances detected in the Hericium erinaceus were the most, with a relative content of 70.69%, followed by the Lentinus edodes and the Pleurotus eryngii, with a relative content of 66.22% and 64.23%. The relative content of ketones and aldehydes detected in Agaricus blazei was the highest and the blank group was the lowest. The relative content of esters detected in the Pleurotus eryngii group was the highest. Through the determination of various indicators, edible fungi can enrich the flavor of pork sausage and extend the shelf life, which can meet the market demand.
Effects of Different Packaging Methods on the Microbial Diversity in Chilled Chicken
Xutao MAI, Wenzhuo WANG, Yuhang ZHENG, Fang LIU, Zhilan SUN, Weimin XU
2023, 44(13): 367-374.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022090004
Abstract(35) HTML(18) PDF(4)
To investigate the effects of different packaging methods on microbial composition of chilled chicken during storage, the microbial diversity was analyzed by Illumina MiSeq high-throughput sequencing. The results showed that the modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), the vacuum packaging (VP) and the nitrogen-filled packaging (N2) could significantly reduce the number of microorganisms and volatile base nitrogen during refrigeration at 4 °C compared with the pallet packed (PP) group. High-throughput sequencing showed that the bacterial species richness of chilled chicken was high in the early stage of storage. The dominant bacteria of chilled chickens in PP group at the later stage of storage were Pseudomonas, Brochothrix, Acinetobacter and Shewanella. It indicated that they could tolerate lower temperatures. Compared with the PP group, the abundance of Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter in MAP group decreased by 14.8% and 9.2%, respectively, while nitrogen-filled packaging reduced the abundance of Acinetobacter and Shewanella. by 9.6% and 7.4%, respectively. The abundance of Acinetobacter and Brochothrix decreased significantly by 8% and 5.6% after vacuum packaging. Different packaging methods could have a greater impact on the flora in chilled chicken meat. All three types of packaging could inhibit the growth of Acinetobacter and MAP had a better inhibitory effect on Pseudomonas, while nitrogen-filled packaging and vacuum packaging had a better inhibitory effect on Shewanella and Brochothrix. This study also provides a theoretical basis for the future packaging methods used in chilled chicken meat.
Nutrition and Healthcare
Study on the Anti-aging Effect of Cherry Ethanol Extract Based on Caenorhabditis elegans Model
Meng YUAN, Fei QUE, Chuxiang XIAO, Yu LI, Fengwu WANG
2023, 44(13): 375-382.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022070218
Abstract(24) HTML(20) PDF(5)
In this paper, the anti-aging effects of two varieties of cherry, Red Light and Yellow Honey in Jiaodong region were investigated and compared , for further development and utilization of cherries. The components of pulp and kernels in the two kinds of cherries were extracted by ethanol and the antioxidant activity was evaluated by the scavenging ability of DPPH and hydroxyl radicals, the ability to inhibit the aggregation of β-amyloid protein (Aβ) was investigated. The effects of four components on the life span, locomotor ability, reproductive ability, paralysis relief ability and the inhibition of Aβ deposition of Caenorhabditis elegans were studied. The results showed that antioxidant activity of two cherry pulp was outstanding, with DPPH radical scavenging rates of 80.88% and 83.19% and hydroxyl radical scavenging rates of 88.19% and 92.85% for Yellow Honey and Red Light, respectively, when the sample concentration was 1 mg/mL. While the antioxidant activity of fruit kernels was relatively low, with DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging rates of Yellow Honey and Red Light were 20.76% and 44.93%, 28.65% and 38.75%, respectively. Compared with the blank group, the life span of Caenorhabditis elegans in the four groups was prolonged by 2~4 days and their locomotor ability was enhanced, and it did not damage the reproduction ability and reduced the paralysis rate of Caenorhabditis elegans and Aβ deposition. In conclusion, the four samples were able to produce certain anti-aging effects by scavenging free radicals and inhibiting the production of Aβ, which have potential applications.
Studies on Phenolic Profile, Antioxidant and Anticancer Effects of Different Polar Parts of Ethanol Extract of Jinhua Tibetan Tea
Kebin LUO, Junlin DENG, Zhuoya XIANG, Boyu ZHU, Chen XIA, Yongqing ZHU, Juan LI, Yingjiao ZHANG, Jian CHEN, Xiaohua LÜ, Liugang SHI
2023, 44(13): 383-389.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022080161
Abstract(39) HTML(22) PDF(13)
The phenolic components, antioxidation, and anticancer effects of different polar parts of ethanol extract of Jinhua Tibetan tea were studied. Three polar fractions, i.e., ethyl acetate, n-butyl alcohol, and water fractions, of ethanol extract of Jinhua Tibetan tea were obtained via liquid-liquid extraction process. The contents of total polyphenols and total flavonoids of the three fractions and ethanol extract were determined using Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminum chloride-potassium acetate method, respectively. The contents of tea polyphenol monomers in all the parts were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. Their antioxidant activities of all the parts were tested and compared using DPPH radical scavenging, ABTS+ radical scavenging, and Fe2+ ion chelating methods. Their anti-proliferation effects on human cervical cancer HeLa cell were evaluated using cell counting Kit8. Results indicated that ethyl acetate fraction had the highest contents of total polyphenols and total flavonoids, as 384.65 mg/g and 188.82 mg/g, respectively, including gallic acid (GA), gallocatechin (GC), and epigallocatechin (EGC) as major phenolic monomers. Antioxidant activity test showed that compared with vitamin E, the DPPH and ABTS+ radical scavenging capacity of all the parts were as the sequence vitamin E>ethyl acetate fraction>n-butyl alcohol fraction>ethanol extract>water fraction, with P<0.05. When compared with EDTA, all parts possessed some Fe2+ ion chelating capacity, being EDTA (IC50=48.3 µg/mL)>ethyl acetate fraction (332.4 µg/mL)>n-butyl alcohol fraction (1332.0 µg/mL)>ethanol extract (1846.0 µg/mL) and water fraction (1952.0 µg/mL), with P<0.05 between the parts, but there was not significant difference between water fraction and ethanol extract with the P>0.05. All the results indicated that the general antioxidant ability sequence was ethyl acetate fraction>n-butyl alcohol fraction>ethanol extract>water fraction. All the parts showed anti-proliferation activity to human cervical cancer HeLa cell, and all with dose-effect relationship. Ethyl acetate fraction showed the strongest anti-proliferation activity (IC50 111.6 µg/mL) to the HeLa cell. In conclusion, ethyl acetate fraction possessed the strongest capacity of both antioxidation and anti-proliferation to HeLa cell, resulted from its highest contents of polyphenols and flavonoids. The studies provide some preliminary scientific evidence of the antioxidant and anticancer effects of Jinhua Tibetan tea.
Improving Effects of Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on Dextran Sulfate Sodium (DSS)-Induced Colitis
Jie LI, Zhixu ZHANG
2023, 44(13): 390-397.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022080331
Abstract(33) HTML(13) PDF(1)
This study aimed to investigate the effect of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis and gut microbiota in mice. The C57BL/6 male mice were divided into normal control group, enteritis model group and EGCG treatment group (50 mg/kg), 10 mice in each group, and were administered orally for 9 consecutive days. The improvement effect of EGCG on DSS-induced colitis in mice was evaluated by weighing the weight of the mice, observing and recording the fecal viscosity and fecal bleeding of the mice, measuring the length of the colon in the mice and detecting inflammatory factors in the serum. The effect of EGCG on the gut microbiota of DSS-induced colitis mice was evaluated by analyzing colon pathological morphology, expression of tight junction proteins, the diversity and structure of gut microbiota. The results showed that EGCG effectively improved the adverse reactions in DSS-induced colitis mice such as weight loss, diarrhea, blood in the stool, and colon, and alleviated systemic chronic inflammation and intestinal barrier damage in DSS-induced colitis mice. Furthermore, EGCG also ameliorated the gut microbiota disturbance, restored gut microbiota diversity, decreased the relative abundance of Firmicutes, increased the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes, promoted the proliferation of beneficial bacteria such as Akkermansia, Alistipes and Bacteroides, and inhibited the growth of harmful bacteria including Desulfovibrio, Escherichia-Shigella and Helicobacter. Therefore, EGCG effectively ameliorated DSS-induced colitis in mice by protecting the intestinal barrier and regulating gut microbiota disturbance.
Effects of Oviductus Ranae on Follicular Developmental Dysfunction by Tripterygium in Rats
Xueyuan SUN, Yu WANG, Xingyao HE, Lin DI, Xinyu LIU, Hongyu ZHAO, Fengqing ZHANG
2023, 44(13): 398-406.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022090023
Abstract(34) HTML(23) PDF(6)
Objective: To study the effect of oviductus ranae (OR) on follicle development and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) signaling pathway in the ovaries of follicular developmental dysfunction rats. Methods: Randomly divide the screened 40 female WISTAR rats into control group (CG), model group (MG), positive qroup (PG), OR high-dose (ORHG) and low-dose group (ORLG). Except the CG rats, the rats in other groups were treated with triptolide solution (40 mg/kg) once a day. The PG were treated with estradiol valerate solution (0.1 mg/kg) and megestrol acetate solution (0.8 mg/kg). The ORHG and ORLG were treated with OR solution (400、200 mg/kg). The rat serum was collected to determine the contents of estradiol (E2), progesterone (P), Luteinizing hormone (LH), Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone (T) at 8th week . The ovaries and uterus of rats were harvested and weighed, and the organ index was calculated. HE staining and TUNEL staining were performed on one ovary to calculate the number of follicles at all levels. The relative expression of PI3K, AKT, phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN) mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) mRNA and the contents of PI3K, Akt, phosphorylated protein kinase B(p-Akt) protein in the other ovary was measured. Result: The results indicated that the follicular development dysfunction model was successfully established. Compared with the MG, the wet weight and index of uterus of the ORHG was increased significantly (P<0.05). The estrous cycle of rats in the ORHG and ORLG was significantly shortened (P<0.05), the number of secondary follicles was significantly increased (P<0.05), the follicular atresia rate was significantly reduced (P<0.05), the serum FSH and LH content was decreased significantly (P<0.05), the serum T and E2 content was increased significantly (P<0.05), PI3K protein content was increased significantly (P<0.05), Akt protein phosphorylation level was increased significantly (P<0.05), the relative expression of PTEN mRNA was decreased significantly (P<0.05). The relative expression of mTOR mRNA in ORHG was significantly lower than that of MG (P<0.05). Conclusion: OR can obviously improve the follicular development dysfunction of rats induced by triptolide, and it can up-regulate PI3K/Akt signal pathway to promote the growth and development of follicles in rats with follicular development dysfunction.
Research Progress on Bioactive Ingredients of Phyllanthus emblica L.
Bingqi HUANG, Henghui YANG, Hong WANG, Weidong BAI, Wenhong ZHAO, Gengsheng XIAO, Haie HU, Xueli LI
2023, 44(13): 407-416.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022070317
Abstract(50) HTML(23) PDF(17)
Phyllanthus emblica L. (PE) was first recorded in the "Taiping Imperial Library" and has a long history of use as a treatment for biliary tract diseases, bronchitis, and diabetes. Modern research has shown that the bioactive ingredient contained in PE include PE polysaccharides, tannins, phenolic acids, flavonoids, lignans and so on, which have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, liver protection and hypoglycemic effects. At present, most of the research on the bioactive ingredient of PE is focused on PE polysaccharides, and PE polyphenols, and as the research becomes more in-depth, the extraction technology is gradually developed in the direction of green, economic, efficient and recyclable, which makes the application of PE more and more extensive. The types and composition, structure, extraction techniques and efficacy of the bioactive ingredients of PE are summarized and discussed in this review to provide a theoretical evidence for future research and deep processing and utilization of PE in food industry and medicine.
Research Progress on Raw Materials and Functional Components for Alleviating Visual Fatigue
Hao DUAN, Wenjie YAN
2023, 44(13): 417-424.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022080358
Abstract(81) HTML(41) PDF(26)
Excessive use of the eyes, the environment is too dry or interfered by other factors, it is easy to cause the eyes to adjust the refraction for a long time, causing visual fatigue, which is mainly manifested as: Frequent blurred vision, eye soreness, dryness, tears and other eye discomfort. Studies have shown that supplementing appropriate substances can help relieve visual fatigue. At present, research on visual fatigue and eye health has made some progress, but lack of systematic summary. Therefore, this paper reviews the physiological mechanism of visual fatigue. Using the national special food information query platform as a data retrieval tool, the raw materials and iconic components of health foods that have been approved to alleviate visual fatigue are systematically counted, classified and analyzed. The progress of functional components with the function of relieving visual fatigue is systematically reviewed in order to provide some reference and inspiration for the development of health foods to alleviate visual fatigue.
Progress in the Preparation of RS3 Resistant Starch by Physical Methods
Chujia ZHANG, Boxin DOU, Man GAO, Zhi ZHANG, Ying LIU, Jianhui JIA, Na ZHANG
2023, 44(13): 425-433.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022090008
Abstract(47) HTML(13) PDF(9)
Resistant starches are polysaccharides that are not digested and absorbed in the small intestine of healthy humans and are beneficial to human health. Regenerated starch (RS3), as one of the types of resistant starch, is widely used in the food industry because of its good thermal stability and low water-holding capacity. This paper reviews the factors affecting the preparation of RS3 resistant starch by ultrasonic, microwave, moist heat, and toughening on its yield, physicochemical properties, and structure of RS3 resistant starch in recent years, and provides an outlook on the current status of physical preparation of RS3 resistant starch, to provide useful references for the study of physical preparation of RS3 resistant starch and promote the practical application of physical preparation of resistant starch.
The Processing Status, Existing Problems and Development Countermeasures of the Pumpkin Processing Industry in China
Shulai XU, Zhugang LI, Xiaojuan LI, Xun WANG, Lidong WANG, Ying LIU
2023, 44(13): 434-439.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022090046
Abstract(83) HTML(18) PDF(12)
China is rich in pumpkin production, and the output ranks first in the world. As a kind of melon and fruit vegetable with nutrition and health care functions, pumpkin is rich in polysaccharides, proteins, unsaturated fatty acids, vitamins and microelements and other nutrients and functional ingredients, with antioxidant, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, anti-tumor, enhance immunity and other functions, has a high value of edible and deep processing and development. This paper reviews the current situation of pumpkin research and processing in China, analyzes the main problems such as low processing and utilization, low added value of products, and further puts forward development countermeasures such as effectively solving the problem of raw material preservation, improving the scale of production and processing, and the future product development direction of developing high value-added pumpkin products, in order to provide corresponding references for pumpkin deep processing and industrial development.
Research Progress of Effect of Stabilizer on Melting Resistance of Ice Cream
Yue ZHOU, Lizeng LIU, Aiguo LIU, Ying XU, Huajin JIN, Jingran KANG, Jun XU
2023, 44(13): 440-449.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022090159
Abstract(42) HTML(27) PDF(8)
The resistance to melting is an important indicator of the quality of ice cream. During transport, storage and distribution, poorly melting resistance ice cream will inevitably become deformed due to fluctuations in ambient temperature, which in turn will affect the consumer experience, product sales and even the brand's reputation. Stabilisers are crucial to the melting resistance of ice cream. This paper reviews the mechanisms of stabilisers on ice cream melting resistance, the properties of different anionic/non-ionic stabilisers and their mechanism of actionon ice cream resistance, mainly in terms of gel formation, inhibition of ice crystal growth and enhancement of ice cream serum phase viscosity. Furtherly, it provides theoretical guidance for the development of cultural and creative ice cream, ice cream with complex structure and ice cream circulation.
Research Progress on the Regulation of Magnetic Field on the Growth and Development of Filamentous Fungi and the Synthesis of Metabolites
Tingting MAI, Mengxiang GAO, Li LI, Jialan ZHANG, Jinsong WANG
2023, 44(13): 450-457.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022090173
Abstract(27) HTML(16) PDF(5)
Magnetic field, as a ubiquitous environmental factor, affects the growth and metabolism of microorganisms. Filamentous fungi are important heterotrophic eukaryotes, which are widely used in food industry and biomedical field. At present, magnetic field treatment of filamentous fungi has become an important research target in industry, and Monascus, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus are typical strains commonly used by filamentous fungi. This paper introduces the research progress of magnetic field regulating the growth and metabolism of Monascus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and other filamentous fungi, analyzes the magnetic field effect of three kinds of filamentous fungi through different magnetic field types, action time, magnetic field intensity and other magnetic field parameters, and expounds the rule of influence of magnetic field on the growth and development of three typical filamentous fungi and their metabolites and metabolic relationship. The research idea of magnetic field regulating filamentous fungi metabolites in many aspects and at multiple levels is discussed. The next step will be to explain the mechanism of magnetic field on filamentous fungi mycelia morphology, enzyme structure changes and transcriptomics, which will provide a reference for exploring the mechanism of magnetic field regulating filamentous fungi metabolites synthesis, and provide a theoretical basis for the comprehensive utilization and development of filamentous fungi.
Application of Physical Mutagenesis and High Throughput Screening Technology in the Selection of Probiotics
Lina PAN, Rongxue TANG, Wenli KANG, Yisi LI, Pengyu HU, Jiaqi WANG, Hongbo ZHOU
2023, 44(13): 458-465.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022090175
Abstract(43) HTML(22) PDF(8)
Wild-type strains hardly meet the current industrial demands due to low stability. The performance of microbial strains (high-yielding, high-quality strains) can be improved by using physical mutagenesis techniques. At the same time, high throughput screening methods and techniques can be used to quickly obtain ideal strains from the mutation library. However, traditional manual screening and shaker culture are high-cost, time-consuming, and laborious, and high-throughput screening technology can solve this problem. In this review, the applications of traditional and novel mutagenesis used for the improvement of probiotics are summarized, the principles of traditional and novel physical mutagenesis techniques are discussed, the differences between the two kinds of mutagenesis techniques are compared and their applications in the improvement of probiotics are described. At the same time, the characteristics and relevant applications of various high-throughput screening technologies (microtitration plate screening, fluorescence activated cell sorting, biosensors screening, droplet microfluidic platform screening and model animal platform screening) are summarized. This review provides important reference for reducing screening cost, improving screening efficiency and obtaining high yield ideal target strains.
Recent Advances in Wheat Bran Polysaccharides: Extraction, Structure and Bioactivities
Songye SHI, Jiping WEN, Yuanxiao LIU
2023, 44(13): 466-473.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022090208
Abstract(45) HTML(30) PDF(15)
Wheat bran is a by-product of wheat processing, which contains many nutrients, such as protein, vitamins, dietary fiber, phenols and polysaccharides. Studies have shown that wheat bran polysaccharide can prevent diabetes, lower blood sugar, improve immunity, anti-tumor and other effect. It has broad development prospects in daily necessities, health food and medical supplies. Different extraction and purification methods of wheat bran polysaccharides will cause differences in the structure of wheat bran polysaccharides, but the structure affects its biological activity. Therefore, it is of great significance to explore the structural characteristics of wheat bran polysaccharide to reveal its biological activity. In this paper, the extraction method, separation and purification, structure characterization and physiological function of wheat bran polysaccharide in recent years are described. At the same time, the structure-activity relationship between the structure of wheat bran polysaccharide and its biological activities is discussed. The present problems and application prospect of wheat bran polysaccharide are prospected in order to provide theoretical basis and new ideas for the utilization and research of wheat bran polysaccharide in health care and medicine.
Research Progress on the Impact of Gut Microbial “Dark Matter” and Dietary Nutrition on Human Health
Yangyang CHU, Yilin ZHANG, Chunping YOU
2023, 44(13): 474-482.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022100047
Abstract(50) HTML(25) PDF(13)
Gut microbial "dark matter" refers to the microorganism that exists in low or rare abundance in the gastrointestinal tract and affects human health, without a clear disclosure of its influence and the related mechanism. Most current studies on the relationship among diet, gut microbiota, and host health have focused on the high-abundance gut microbiota, while the role of gut microbial "dark matter" has often been neglected. Therefore, this paper reviews the interactions among dietary nutrition, gut microbial "dark matter", and host health, as well as the new advances in microbiomics technologies, discusses the importance of exploring the acting mechanisms of microbial "dark matter" on human health, and provides new ideas for future dietary interventions to influence gut microbiota for preventing or even improving human diseases.
Current Situation and Trend Analysis of China’s Bakery Industry
2023, 44(13): 483-489.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022120223
Abstract(65) HTML(51) PDF(10)
Since the reform and the opening-up, China’s bakery industry steps into the period of rapid growth and is influenced by the neighboring Asian countries, and the European and American countries in the meantime. Viewed from the general growth of China’s bakery industry in the near 20 years, the development of China’s bakery industry starts late but grows fast and in variety of ways, especially after entering the 21st century. According to the research on the development path and current situation of China’s bakery industry, this thesis is trying to gain the insights into the development trends of the industry, such as diversified consumption scenarios driving the increasement of bakery food consumption demand, the healthy bakery, bakery plus, the home baking, and the pre-made bakery, etc.